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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Irina V. Frolova Structural-Constructional Approach to Utopia Comprehension
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Being frequently used in philosophical discourse multi-semantic character of «utopia» concept arises a need to specify it's content and to study the phenomenon itself. In the process of defining utopia functions and it's unalienable elements it is reasonable to rely on the structural - functional analysis. But this approach supposes studying utopia in static state and doesn't let researching utopia's historical transformation. For researching utopia in dynamics structural- constructional approach can be applied. Methodological potential of this theory enables to review sociality as multiplicity of human individuals arranged by means of social order which has been developed by the individuals themselves. Utopia is a theoretical construct, a result of social reality critical reflection experienced by the utopia subject; an outcome of socially and historically based and personally determined ideal alternative society image construction presented in various forms and modifications, enabled to exert a reformative influence on various spheres of social life.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Alec Gordon Area Studies, Planetary Thinking and Philosophical Anthropology
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The aim of this paper is to consider the vicissitudes of “area studies” from the Second World War to the present focusing eventually on the normative imperative to develop a new paradigm of “planetary thinking.” First an overview of the history of “area studies” will be given from the start in the U.S. during the Second World War in response to the geostrategic imperative for America to know its new geopolitical responsibilities in a world divided by war. This security imperativemorphed into the postwar requisite to develop a counterhegemonic strategy against soviet communism in the hot spot parts of Asia, Latin American, and later Africa. The latter military‐oriented strategy was added to with research into development and modernization in the third-world through to the boundary displacement of areas studies at the end of the Cold War into the current era of globalization. At this very historical moment of transition a new rationale for area studies emerged in the form of a geoeconomic imperative – both in the U.S. and, with a different gloss, in South Korea in the late 1990s. Second, on the basis of this historical apercu, the argument will be proposed that, given the problem of global warming and the issue‐area of global inequality lurking behind the UnitedNation’s Millennium Development Goals, a pressing contemporary task for philosophy is to make a critical contribution to developing a new planetary perspective for area studies informed by a constitutive philosophical anthropology attendant to the species being of human beings.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
V.P. Goryunov, O.R. Pazukhina Relativist Model of Society
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Social cognition can be based on two contrary axioms that answer the question of whether the society can provide for the universal survival of all of its members. Negative answer (relativist model of society) is more productive methodologically. The key notion here is the technosocial formula of society, the physical meaning of which is that the society as an aggregate of people needs bigger vital space than it can create. The growth of man in nature was the result not only of the supplanting of other species but also of the intraspecific struggle which became the main factor of the development process. The criterion of social progress is reduced in the end to only one index – the ability of society’s survival and it doesn’t have any absolute value in space and time.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Oliver Hidalgo Rethinking the Concept of Democracy: From Aporias to Normativity
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The conceptual history of democracy suggests that the overwhelming success of the concept is most of all due to its ability to subsume very different historical ideas and realities under the same semantics. Moreover, the historical evolution of the term is repugnant to an unequivocal definition because it contains some very significant paradoxa, aporias and contradictions. This obviously opens the concept of democracy to some further discussions about the conceivable legitimacy of Non-Western social and political systems. On the other hand, this does not mean that there is no core belief or best interpretation of democracyexisting at all. The contestability of the political concept does not prevent us from drawing normative conclusions from social and historical research but rather demands the reflection of the normative content each definition of democracy includes. Hence tracing the different forms the term took on over times and conceding the preliminary character of modern liberal democracy should not be confused with the philosophical duty to identify the concept’s preparatory or incomplete versions. The conceptual history of democracy is still in progress.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
V.I. Ivanov Russian Idea Today
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Russian idea as philosophy of longing future of Russia was formed by humanists in opposition to real state of life in the country. Beginning from Moscow kingdom in Russia there were often oppression, injustice, loutishness, bribery, cultural backwardness, lack of education. The number of civilized, highly educated, high-moral people was very narrow. But the part they played in the history was extremely great; they were always the social vanguard of our motherland. They themselves brought really human properties for their country, which would be developed later and would be discovered in the lives of majority of the population of our country. What is really human or simply human in opposition to inhuman in a person? Everything is very simple. Good will in people appears when they begin to follow the commandments: don’t kill, don’t tempt, don’t steal, don’t use foul language etc. And vice versa, if a person breaks these rules, he loses his humanity. Its essence is simple; the main idea is that it is important for the highest moral principles to become the attribute of life for the majority of people in the country, just like mobile phone or computer became an integral part of people’s life today. Today Russian idea becomes global one. One cannot use other people for achieving their goals. It means that while different nations and states treat each other cautiously and suspiciously, with secret desire to gain something by deception, to acquire something fraudulently, to make a fortune by fraud, none of global problems will be solved positively.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Ouyang Kang On the Emergence and the Research Outline of Social Information Science
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Social Information Science (or Social Informatics) is a new and interdiscipline branch subject in China. This paper probe the emergence and the research outline of social information science. 1. The proposal of the social information science. We set up the research from an extension from the theoretical informatics to the concrete informatics; a internal bond of integrating various subjects in humane and social sciences; an intersection and mutual permeation between the social science and the natural science; a the intersection and interaction among humane and social sciences, modern information science and information technology; a strengthening to the research into Social Epistemology. Ⅱ. On the concept of social information. Social information directly is different with selfexistent and natural information, and more related to human’s autonomous creative activities, to society’s culture inheritance, to social value, to human’s spiritual interaction and to human’s emotions. Ⅲ.On the theoretical orientation of the social information science. Social Information Science is a concrete branch of informatics, a generation of sub-disciplines of social information, a kind of traversing and comprehensive research on individual social science from the angle of information, a kind of exchange and interaction between social theoretical research and the modern information technology. Ⅳ. The research focus of the social information science. The paper lists 10 main focus in the research of social information science. Ⅴ.The system and frame of the social information science. In general, there should be four levels of researches if the social information science is to be viewed as a relatively independent subject: the philosophical level, the scientific theoretical level, concrete apply level, social information technology and methods.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
C. Mantzavinos How to Explain Meaningful Actions
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There is a long tradition in the philosophy of the social sciences that emphasizes the meaningfulness of human action. This tradition doubts or even negates the possibility of causal explanations of human action precisely on the basis that human actions have meaning. This paper provides an argument in favour of methodological naturalism in the social sciences. It grants the main argument of the Interpretivists, i.e. that human actions are meaningful, but it shows how a transformation of a “nexus of meaning” into a “causal nexus” can take place, proposing the “successful transformation argument”. Based on previous work presented in my Naturalistic Hermeneutics, Cambridge University Press, 2005 the paper discusses four approaches that describe the “nexus of meaning” connected with a human action based on the motives, the intentions, the reasons, and the rationality of the action respectively. From the standpoint of eachapproach a causal nexus can arise, namely, if the respective motives, intentions, reasons, or the human rationality that are manifest in the different nexuses of meaning exhibit certain invariances. These approaches can be formulated as theories, which explain human action every time that the nexuses of meaning – described with the diverse conceptual apparatuses – can be transformed into causal nexuses. It is shown that explanations based on motives, intentions, reasons, or rationality are possible, as are explanations of human action based on, at least in principle, an unlimited number of other theories.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Sergey F. Martynovich Philosophy of Science as the Object of Metaphilosophical Investigations
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Philosophy of science is the object of metaphilosophical investigations. Metaphilosophy is the philosophy of philosophy. Philosophy is an archetypical thinking of being or an experience-of-being. History of Greek-European tradition of philosophy has three archetypes of thinking: objectivity, subjectivity, and inter-subjectivity. They are three archetypical contexts of interpretations of the concept of a philosophy of science too. Is philosophy of science part of philosophy? Is philosophy ofscience part of epistemology? What are methods of philosophy of science? These questions are the topics of metaphilosophy. The topic of a scientific fact is a focal point of contemporary epistemology and philosophy of science. Is a scientific fact a fallible knowledge? The nature of a scientific fact is discussed in keeping with to the opposition of fallibilism and infallibilism. If fallibilism is universal quality of knowledge then there is a problem: is a scientific fact a fallible knowledge too? We are understanding and make clear the nature of a scientific fact by correlation of facts with: (1) data and evidence; (2) languages and theories; (3) methods of empirical investigations; (4) values, norms, and conventions of scientific investigations. Philosophy of science communicates with philosophy ofeconomics as the contemporary branch of philosophy. Its problems arise from the relationship of philosophy and philosophy of science with economics and practice.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Dichenko Mikhai General Laws of Sciences
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Universal laws which are shown not only in a material world, but also in spiritual, represent a crystal lattice of knowledge. This base lattice is a basis for more specific and various phenomena of our life. Various sciences study the different sides of our life. However, there are common laws for all sciences, shown both in physics, and in biology; both in chemistry, and in economy; both in psychology, and in genetics.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Natalia Smirnova Social Phenomenology in the Study of Human Self
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The paper deals with the problem of the social construction of the Self in socio-phenomenological perspective. I am trying to explore the idea, that the shortcomings of the so-called classical Self-models can be clearly explicit in the light of socio-phenomenological approach. Heuristic power of transcendentally phenomenological conception of the Ego and Alter Ego is examined as well as its further development in the framework of phenomenological tradition in the social sciences. Turning to postmodern tradition in the social thinking, I am trying to argue, that significance of phenomenological approach to the problem of the social construction of the Self consists in the fact, that it mediates “classic” Self-theories in European social thinking and further developed radical forms of cognitive constructivism which paves the way to postmodern deconstruction.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Sokolov Sergey M. Globalization and Sustainable Development
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From the end of the XX century academic community has been extensively discussing globalization issues affecting economy, politics and culture. First and foremost there grew anticipations of an ecological disaster on a global scale associated with environmental pollution. Solution of these problems on a global scale is based on a sustainable development strategy. The sustainable development is a balance between natural environment (biosphere) and artificial environment (technosphere). Russian thinkers of the early XX century introduced a notion of noosphere. One of the landmarks of sustainable developmentmust become ecosophy. Asian civilization has been developing in the spirit of ecosophy. It shows that one can live in equilibrium with natural surroundings and scientific progress, preserving spiritual culture and maintaining high spiritual standard. Extending of culture dialogue became more essential in XXI century.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Mira Sultanova Theodore Roszak and Counterculture: Rethinking the World’s Challenges
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In his works for a few decades since the 1960s, Theodore Roszak, professor of California State University, has made an emphatic call to rethink all the fundamental objectives and values of the techno-scientific civilization and consumer society. His name became famous when he published his book “The Making of a Counterculture. Reflections on the Technotronic Society and Its Youthful Opposition” (New York, 1968), supporting the oppositional movement of the young Americans which he named counterculture. Theodore Roszak came to the conclusion that the consumer society did not bring happiness to all people, that it could rapidly bring mankind to an environmental disaster, and that it is a blind alley in terms of social development.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Greg Yudin Sense in Epistemology of Social Science
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There has been recently a substantial rise of relativism in the epistemology of social science. It has seriously discredited normative function of the epistemology and changed the context of epistemological discussion. Some hold that the problem of relativism cannot be solved by scientific means, because it ultimately depends on personal beliefs. However, present paper shows that there are different scientific strategies of coping with relativism. The key argument is that the epistemological stance towards relativism is closely related to the conceptualization of sense in general social theory. Some prominent examples of socialtheorizing are presented to support this point and demonstrate that different conceptualizations of sense are possible, and that these are connected to the approach to social-scientific cognition. Relationship between epistemological grounds and conceptualization of sense in work of Scheler, Weber, Bourdieu, Luhmann is briefly analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that future exploration of epistemological problems in social sciences may benefit from rethinking and refining the concept of sense.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Xinyan Zhang Dynamics of Human Society
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One conjecture is presented in this paper, which assumes that human societies might be understood as two measurable dynamic states.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Hongwen Zhu Towards One Kind of Social Science as Phronesis
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Social science, as a social and intellectual institution, inherent in modernity, as well as the modern social systems and orders, is the prerequisite and manifestation of the reflexivity in the modern world. There are, however, some fundamental problems in modern social science, in terms of its specialized system and methodological paradigms and conceptions.
articles in spanish
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
José de Lira Bautista Comprensión hermenéutica y análisis situacional en Karl R. Popper
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In this paper I expose the hermeneutic turn in Popperian philosophy of science. It is a milestone in the search of scientific rationality because permit us explain and understand both the method of deductive test of theories and the growth of knowledge. Especially, incorporating hermeneutics parameters, build up from Popper’s point of view, like situational logic, supported on the third world theory and the scientific tradition theory, open a door to another form of understand the scientific rationality. It expands the ingenuous model of falsification towards the question of increase of knowledge, which consists on pose problems, putforwards tentative theories, evaluate error elimination, and generate new problems. One of the outcomes leads us to replant our conception of Popper’s philosophy of science close from an hermeneutic point of view.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Milton F. Trujillo Losada Hannah Arendt: Poder, Acción Y Política
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The subject of the action and the politician, introduces to us necessarily in the consideration of the problem of the power. Arendt talks about the term to be able, like the human capacity to act of arranged way. For our author, the power never belongs to an individual but to a group of individuals and continues existing while the group stays united. In other words, a man must be able when he acts in name of a group of people; without the consent of the group, the person lets have to be able. The man like individual, by itself, lacks only being able has power. We shared this notion of being able totally, considering to Arendt like one of the authors who better have analyzed it distinguishing it of the force (or violence), giving of him a definition us that ejemplariza resulting his “ontologic status” as makes specific of the voluntary organization of individualities, and founding it on basic the human condition of the plurality. Arendt understands clearly that to the power she only can oppose to it him the force or violence, but this one cannot really replace it: the violence is not for her to be able, but destructive of being able: “But the violence is able well to destroy to the power, never can become its substitute. From it is the frequent political combination of force and deficiency of being able there.”
articles in russian
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Э.С. Демиденко Философское осмысление глобального перехода жизни на Земле
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В статье ставится вопрос о необходимости философского осмысления новых явлений в эволюции общества и Универсума в связи с начавшимся глобальным переходом жизни на Земле. Как показывает анализ, под воздействием техногенного общественного развития происходит нарастающее разрушение биосферы, человека и биосферной жизни, на смену земной естественной, биосферной метасистеме жизни приходит искусственная, техносоциоприродная. Эта формирующаяся новая целостность включает в себя глобализирующийся метасоциум (техногенный социум), техносферу, трансформированные на основе искусственного отбора и биотехнологий живые организмы, материальную и духовнуюкультуру, многогранный духовный мир человека, биологически обедненное географическое земное пространство, сохранившиеся элементы биосферы. Такому развитию событий на планете должна противостоять философия, формируя основные принципы и рекомендации по сохранению биосферной жизни и человека, разрабатывая далее и внедряя элементы устойчивого развития общества и биосферы в соответствии с решениями Конференции ООН по окружающей среде и развитию (1992 г.) осуществляя и другие разумные мероприятия.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Е.А. Дергачева Техногенное Общество: Новые Грани Исследования
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In article the social-philosophical concept of technogenic societies developed by the author is submitted. The essence of the technogenic society consists in the basic change of the public productive forces which have expressed in sharp increase of value of scientific and technical productive forces that is caused by transition to industrial, and to a scientific-technological way of manufacture of a public life and accordingly - to an industrial and postindustrial society. Substantial characteristics of the technogenic society are defined also by influence of scientifictechnological, technical and technosphere factors on all course of a planetary life, on gradual replacement of biospheric forms of a terrestrial life postbiospheric, artificial. Technogenic (economic, scientific, technological) rationality promotes not only to improvement of conditions of ability to live of humanity, but also strengthens the tendency of global degradation of biosphere and the person, to the statement on a planet of an artificial life.
20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 46
Polikanova Elena Human Community Identity & Tolerance in the Conditions of Globalization
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Globalization is a natural process. It has a number of advantages & disadvantages, causes many questions and problems, which can hardly sometimes be solved by countries independently. These problems can only be solved by the world community. One of these problems is to maintain the concrete communities identity. Is it possible to keep the unique culture of different ethnos, language, traditions in the globalizing world? Or as some researchers consider, there is a tendency to the formation of the so called super ethnos? In such conditions tolerance takes on special significance as a certain means of activity, as social behavior model, as a norm of behavior for each member of the society. Tolerance as a behavior model on one hand should be worked out by a state legislative body, from the other it should be a norm of behavior for each member of the society. The basis of the tolerant behavior is the principle of mutual understanding.It can be considered to be a moral imperative for the resolution of conflict situations. The relevance & importance of tolerance & creating tolerant relations is a characteristic feature of the democratic personality.