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series introduction
1. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Ioanna Kuçuradi Series Introduction
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volume introduction
2. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
David Evans Volume Introduction
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3. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
María G. Amilburu Education and the Multicultural Society: the Philosophical Perspective
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Multiculturalism, namely the coexistence of different cultural traditions within the framework of a single socio-political structure, is one of the most salient characteristics of western democratic societies. This situation is due mainly to two factors. On the one hand, we find a plurality of historical communities within the State that have different cultural roots, and each one of them defends the right to have its cultural identity recognised. On the other hand, there is a growing exodus of people from less developed countries into western ones. In this paper I analyse from a philosophical point of view the multicultural situation that has its origin in immigration, paying attention to a public debate on this topic that has been held in Spain recently. I also analyse some conditions that must be taken into account by educators if they want to promote an adequate integration of immigrants into society, being respectful both of their cultural identity and the rights of the society of destination.
4. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Jorge Ayala Martínez Persona humana y autorrealización
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Divldimos este trabajo en tres partes. A) El momento histörico, para resaltar la importancia de la educaciön para la vlda de la persona. B) El momento antropolögico o explicativo del concepto de autorrealizaciön. C) El momento etico-pedagögico.
5. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Marta Ruiz Corbella The Philosophical Approach to the Values of the Spanish Laws of Education
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Las leyes educativas que rigen el sistema educativo de cualquier pais son de indudable interes, no solo porque regulan el curriculum, la organizaciön de los centros educativos, la igualdad de oportunldades, etc., sino tambien porque aportan las claves para interpretar como cada pais entiende la educaciön, que tipo de ciudadano quiere formar. En definitiva, que tipo de hombre y mujer y de sociedad quiere desarrollar. En las ultimas dos decadas se han aprobado en Espaha cuatro leyes educativas. Los valores en las que se basan, lo que cada una de ellas han querido fomentar, nos dan las claves de que tipo de sociedad se quiere construir, y, sobre todo, que tipo de ciudadanos se quiere formar. Los valores que se potencian en nuestro actual sistema educativo poseen una clara dimension social y democrätica: son valores fundamentalmente de convivencia, que buscan formar un ciudadano demöcrata. Aunque para ese logro se llevan a cabo cons tan tes referencias a los valores morales, como fundamento de los valores sociales, a parte de la necesaria aportaciön de valores culturales, tecnicos, esteticos, ecolögicos, etc.
6. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Nuran Direk Philosophy for Children in Turkey
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In this essay, I shall both inquire into the relationship between democracy and education in general and concentr ate on education in philosophy for children in the Turkish cultural context. I argue that education in philosophy for children is useful for teaching the acquisition of knowledge from the information provided, for questioning of rules in different contexts, and for the analysis of facts encountered in daily life. Ethical attitudes can neither be derived from the information provided about the moral rules, nor do they result from a practice of unquestioning obedience. However, during a classroom discussion children can learn to make moral evaluations by taking into account basic rights and values. My experience as a teacher in philosophy for children, which I gained during my time working in childcare institutes, has enabled me to observe the positive effects of this program on children who were awakened to consciousness of their rights by means of it.
7. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Eduardo H. Flichman The Function of Perplexity
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I present one specific way of creating problematic situations: generating perplexity. A teacher with a personal history marked by a struggle to conceptualise the words of the professor or of the book, will have paved his way. The teacher develops his subject clearly. When the students say they understand, it is time to show an apparently paradoxical situation. Perplexity appears. The teacher again explains the subject and all accept again that they understand perfectly. But the difficulty doesn't disappear. The debate begins. The discussion creates murmuring, noise. The perfect moment has arrived. A silent classroom would have meant the teacher's failure. Second step: "rewinding". To go back and look for the failure. The students should discover the failure, helped by the teacher. The second step finishes. Perplexities cannot always be solved, especially in the case of philosophy. When they arise from diverse proposals for a solution, it would be bad teaching to present a single way of solving the problem. Students should know that in these cases the debates are open and the discussion continues. In other cases it is just a conceptual failure in construing the corresponding notion, so the discussion should be closed once the failure is found.
8. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Sílvio Gallo Elementos para una didáctica filosófica: el aula de filosofía como "taller de conceptos"
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Este articulo tiene el objetivo de cuestionar los sentidos del aula de filosofia, sobre todo en la educaciön secundaria. Para eso, parte de la definiciön de filosofia expuesta por Deleuze y Guattari en Qu'est-ce que la philosophie?, donde la senala como una actividad de creaciön de conceptos, hace critica a las concepciones del aula de filosofia como momentos de reflexion, de contemplaciön o incluso de diälogos, una vez que ninguna de estas tareas se hace especfficamente filosöfica. Para garantizar esa especificidad, intenta caracterizar el aula de filosofia como un "taller de conceptos", un espacio donde el maestro y los alumnos se hacen creadores de conceptos, alrededor de problemas vividos, tomando como herramientas los conceptos histöricamente producidos.
9. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Lew Gerbilsky The Philosophy of Integratism: Solving World Problems
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At the beginning of the third millennium we are entering a new era. I call it "The Integration/Disintegration Era" because the Integration/ Disintegration Problem is one of the basic problems our world is facing today. Philosophy attempts to work out an integrated view of the universe, of human nature, and of society. The specific philosophical science which has concerned itself with integration/ disintegration, is Integratism. This is the common denominator of different particular problems in the integration /disintegration of the universe, society and personality; and it supplies a possible philosophical solution to the general problem of disintegration. The main concept of integratism is integration [Lat. integer, complete]. My theoretical and empirical study of various aspects of integration/ disintegration problems in modern science and education has led to the formulation of a new, rather systematic and, I believe, quite useful conception of contemporary integratism that contributes not only to the attempt to develop a theory of integration/disintegration processes in various biological and social systems but also to practical problems of developing contemporary integrated educational systems. Further concepts of contemporary integratism are: integrative level, IDon, adaptive disintegration, ADon, disadaptive disintegration, adaptive reintegration, sanosphere, pathosphere, etc. The philosophy of integratism might provide a possible philosophical solution to the general problem of disintegration and in this way assign priority to certain particular problems concerning the disintegration of the world.
10. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Vadim Grekhnev Philosophy Solving the Problems of Education in the Modern World
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This paper deals with an analysis of philosophy as intellectual therapeutics for educational (pedagogical) activity. Two interrelated issues are examined: (1) philosophy's role in the construction of cognitive attitudes to all systems of education; (2) philosophy's role in the formation of a definite value attitude to education. A great deal of attention is devoted to the problem of educational goals. It is argued that the assumed dichotomy of the social and the individual (which still occurs in our teaching practice and in some philosophical doctrines) in defining educational goals, is itself mistaken. It is shown that pedagogical activity must be based on a general concept of man as a whole substance who organically includes qualities in himself. Our pressing concern with education in the twenty-first century promotes a new subject for pedagogical activity. This presupposes a modern philosophical mind capable of creating an individual with a broad worldview and with pragmatic capabilities.