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Displaying: 1-20 of 23 documents


1. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Lourdes Gordillo Alvarez Valdés La virtud como perfeccionamiento del individuo según J.S. Mill
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En esta comunicación se presenta la concepción utilitarista de la virtud en John Stuart Mill. El cultivo y la adquisición desinteresada de la virtud se integran en el proceso de autorrealización humana. La virtud es necesaria para la consecución de la felicidad y para el interés general de la sociedad. Se analiza la virtud en Mill como un sentimiento moral que se trasmite por observación. Se finaliza con unas conclusiones críticas sobre esta perspectiva utilitaria de la virtud.
2. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
María G. Amilburu Understanding Human Nature: Examples from Philosophy and the Arts
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Ours is not the first time philosophers have looked to art for examples to illustrate their arguments. One example would be Kierkegaard, who turned to Mozart's operas in an attempt to expose what he called the aesthetic realm of existence. I hold that if Kierkegaard lived today, he would consider the main character of Nikita Mikhalkov's Dark Eyes (1987) as a prototype of the aesthetic way of existence. In order to support my thesis, I first discuss Kierkegaard's theory of the three spheres of existence. I look especially at what he considers to be the main feature of the aesthetic stage, as well as the figure of Don Giovanni in Mozart's opera. Second, I will look at the character of Romano Podroni in Dark Eyes. Finally, I will point out what makes these two characters prototypes of the aesthetic existence: the inhuman way in which they live the temporal dimension of human existence.
3. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Bolesław Andrzejewski Mensch und Natur: Ein Beitrag zu der T eorie des “Homo Universus”
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The following discussion is centered on German romantic philosophy. The founder of philosophical romanticism, F.W.J. Schelling, speaks of the identity of all spheres of the universe. This view is echoed by other romantic philosophers, e.g., Novalis, Hölderlin, von Baader, and Schubert, as well as later neoromantics such as Scheler and Heidegger. I wish to show homo sapien as homo universus. Homo sapien is tied to the universe and must be aware of this oneness. Such knowledge will ameliorate his alienation from nature.
4. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Jean-Marie C. Apovo Anthropologie du Bo (Théorie et Pratique du gris-gris)
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Subjective knowledge should not be separated from anthropology. But, unfortunately, this is the prevailing practice. The anthropology of Bo expresses the presence of Africa in anthropology. The authenticity of the African is found in his fervent practice of Bo. His thought, action, relations with others-his entire way of life-is based on the practice of Bo insofar as he wears Bo names. Bo is deeply rooted in his cultural values and comprises the background for all social organizations and thus acts as a social regulator. In Western anthropology there is a scientific mind; in African anthropology there is a Bo mentality that attempts to understand the world and then conquer it.
5. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Carol Collier The Body as Teacher: From Source of Knowledge to Object of Knowledge
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I look at two ways of seeing the body during the Renaissance: the first, illustrated in the Essais of Montaigne, focuses on the body as a source of knowledge about the self; the second, illustrated in the developing science of anatomy, focuses on the body as an object of knowledge that is increasingly available only to specialists. In looking at the science of anatomy as it developed in the Renaissance, I show that the transformation of the body from a source of knowledge of both body and soul to an object of a mechanical science did not happen easily and reflects contradictory approaches to the self that continue to this day.
6. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Duan Dezhi On the History, Theoretical Difficulties and Prospects of the Western Subjectivity Thought
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7. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Nancy du Bois Vico’s Orations on Paideia and Humanitas
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This essay on the themes of paideia and humanitas in Giambatista Vico's inaugural orations is excerpted form a chapter of a larger study on Vico and Plato. I focus on Pico della Mirandola's Oration of the Dignity of Man because it illuminates Vico's humanistic ideals. For Vico, self-knowledge is the axis of the sphere of the liberal arts. Self-knowledge for human beings is twofold. The divinity of the human mind is a central theme in Vico as well as Pico, and human dignity is strongly stated. So one aspect of self-knowledge establishes confidence in human abilities. The other side is the recognition of human ignorance and misery. How does Vico reconcile the divinity of the human mind with the observation that most human beings are fools? The same way Pico does. Humanitas is the goal of paideia, not a given. Education makes us into human beings. We become who we are through the cultivation of virtue. Vico inspires in his students the confidence to undertake the heroic effort to rule their passions and dispel ignorance. This confidence in human potential Vico learned from Renaissance thinkers such as Pico. Vico is most impassioned when he treats educational themes, and his words are inspiring today for students and teachers alike.
8. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Victor M. Idoate García Antropologia de Lain Entralgo segun sus escritos
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Se define como cuerpo a la totalidad de acciones, potencias, posibilidades, constituyentes...que al actuar como un todo integra las actividades que mediante el cuerpo somático se realizan: la historia, la percepción, las emociones, la conducta, la amistad, el encuentro, y la relación médico enfermo. Se considera que el hombre esta vertido en la realidad, porque la versión (desde el interior hacia afuera) es desde el cuerpo, por ser el hombre un ser de realidades, y por existir un mecanismo de versión. La unidad psico-orgánica que constituye el hombre presenta varios momentos, unos constitutivos (basados en vía de fundamentación): estructural (sistema de notas psico-orgánicas), conducta (conducta humana) y personal, otros moduladores: eutímico (salud) y el patológico (patología como afección). El animal vive entre estímulos, mientras que el hombre al inteligir los estímulos los aprehende y los convierte er realidad. El mecanismo de la versión es la aprehensión sentiente de los estímulos y la intelección de estos como reales. La persona se encuentra indigentemente arrojado en la realidad.
9. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Ingvar Johansson Impossible Descriptions, Superfluous Descriptions, and Mead’s “I”
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Some kinds of utterances which have an indicative grammatical form seem, for different reasons, to be unable to say something true of the world. Logical contradictions are only the prime example of something the author baptizes impossible descriptions. So-called performative contradictions (e.g., "I do not exist") make up another kind, but there are at least two more such kinds: negating affirmations and performatives which cannot be explained within the philosophy of language. Only philosophical anthropology can explain their feature of "impossibleness," and a distinction between unreflective and reflective consciousness is central to the explanation. Particularly important here is G. H. Mead's distinction between two aspects of the self: the "I" and the "me." Each of the four kinds of impossible descriptions distinguished has its own contrary opposite. These are, in turn, logical tautologies, performative tautologies, affirming negations, and omissive performatives. The last three types as types have not received the philosophical recognition that they deserve. All four fit a general characterization which is given as a definition of the concept of superfluous description.
10. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Chin-Tai Kim The Nature and Possibility of Philosophical Anthropology
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Philosophers cannot avoid addressing the question of whether philosophical anthropology (that is, specifically philosophical inquiry about human nature and human phenomenon) is possible. Any answer must be articulated in the context of the nature and function of philosophy. In other words, philosophical anthropology must be defined as an account of the nature of the subject of philosophical thinking. I argue that if philosophical thinkers admit that they are beings in nature, culture, and history, then the possibility of a uniquely philosophical theory of human nature and human phenomenon should be discarded. Rather, philosophy's catalytic and integrative role in human cognition should be stressed.
11. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Sabina Kruszynska The Human Nature and Freedom: Re-interpretation of the philosophical thought of Benjamin Constant
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The liberal French thinker Benjamin Constant develops a conception of human nature which shows the triplicity of being human. Such triplicity manifests itself in the close connection between emotion, rationality, and animality. He also develops an idea of liberty which treats it only as a real, historically conditioned minimalization of external limitations. Liberty thus understood enjoys metaphysical rootedness in human nature.
12. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Claudia Márquez Pemartín The Feeling of Pain: A Metaphysical Interpretation from Thomas Aquinas
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The metaphysical concepts of act and potency that are central to the Thomistic tradition can help us solve the problem of understanding pain, sorrow and grief. Human beings, as natural creatures, are composed of act and potency. If rightly understood, these concepts can give a rational explanation to the reality of pain-without having recourse to religious beliefs-by accepting it as a natural derivation of our natural limits.
13. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
E. Meinberg Environmental Destruction: A Philosophical-Anthropological Perspective
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14. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Elizabeth Murray Morelli Ressentiment and Rationality
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This paper is an investigation of the condition of ressentiment. It reviews the two most prominent philosophic accounts of ressentiment: Nietzsche's genealogy of ressentiment as the moral perversion resulting from the ancient Roman/Palestinian cultural conflict and giving birth to the ascetic ideal; and Scheler's phenomenology of ressentiment as a complex affective unit generative of its own affects and values. A single sketch of the typical elements of ressentiment is drawn from the review of these two accounts. One element in particular, the exigency of rationality, is highlighted. The rationality of ressentiment is found to be essential to the phenomenon as a whole and to its constitutive parts. Curiously, while their accounts imply and suggest the role of rationality, neither Nietzsche or Scheler make the centrality of rationality to ressentiment implicit.
15. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Sami Pihlström Narrativity, Modernity, and Tragedy: How Pragmatism Educates Humanity
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I argue that the modernist notion of a human self (or subject) cannot easily be post-modernistically rejected because the need to view an individual life as a unified 'narrative' with a beginning and an end (death) is a condition for asking humanly important questions about its meaningfulness (or meaninglessness). Such questions are central to philosophical anthropology. However, not only modern ways of making sense of life, such as linear narration in literature, but also premodern ones such as tragedy, ought to be taken seriously in reflecting on these questions. The tradition of pragmatism has tolerated this plurality of the frameworks in terms of which we can interpret or 'structure' the world and our lives as parts of it. It is argued that pragmatism is potentially able to accommodate both the plurality of such interpretive frameworks-premodern, modern, postmodern — and the need to evaluate those frameworks normatively. We cannot allow any premodern source of human meaningfulness whatsoever (say, astrology) to be taken seriously. Avoiding relativism is, then, a most important challenge for the pragmatist.
16. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Vassily M. Pivojev Luctis Cogitatio and Noctis Reflectio as the Forms of Consciousness and Human Exploration of the World
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The task of philosophy in the modern world consists in the construction of a methodology of self-consciousness and self-development in the person-the method of human knowledge. I suggest a binary approach to the development of human reason which is able to understand both the world and the place of the person in the world. This allocates two spheres and two forms of consciousness: 'day time' (practical) and 'night' (spiritual). The basic functions of the former are: cognitive-explanatory; service of the practical, economic, and industrial activity; praxis; methodological for engineering and technology; critical-reflecting control of mind; the blocking of 'night' consciousness and the curbing of irrational instincts; safety and preservation; establishment of norms. Functions of the former include elements related to axiology, teleology, creativity, understanding and mythology. Both forms of consciousnesses differ yet supplement each other and should therefore cooperate systematically through a shared educational dialogue.
17. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Eugene S. Poliakov Lord, What is Man?
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In this essay, philosophical anthropology is considered from the viewpoint of biblical exegesis. Our summons to self-knowledge is discussed in the light of immanence of the Kingdom of God in the human being. Humanity is argued to consist of a three-fold structure: outer, inner, and divine.
18. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Martin Rudolph Homo Mensura-Philosophie: Analepse gegen Paralipse La Mettrie und die griechische Medizinphilosophie (iatros philosophos isotheos)
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Philosophische Anthropologie teilt sich in Europa seit der Zeit der alten Griechen in zwei Richtungen: die theologische (deus mensura) und die anthropologisch-medizinische (homo mensura)-Platon und Demokrit, Kant und La Mettrie. Für beide Richtungen steht Paideia (Lernen, Formen, Bilden, Kultur, Humanität) in Zentrum der Philosophie. Für homo-mensura-Philosophie entscheidend ist Analepse (ungefiltertes Aufnehmen) im Gegensatz zur Paralipse (filterndes Auslassen). La Mettrie ist ein wichtiger Vertreter der homo-mensura-Philosopphie (l'homme machine-l'homme mesure). Als 'Darwinist' (100 Jahre vor Darwin), für den das Gehirn die mabsetzende lebendige 'Maschine' ist, ist er Vorläufer einer evolutionären Philosophie. Homo-mensura-Philosophie ist (wie Thukydides, einer ihrer Vertreter, sagt) ein ‘Besitz für immer.'
19. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Beata Stawarska The Self, the Other, the Self as An/other: A Reading of Early Sartre
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This article critically examines the way in which Sartre dealt with the problem of alterity in his early works, proposing that Sartre presented an unsatisfactory account of alterity in his first philosophical work entitled The Transcendence of the Ego, though his study of imagination offers ample opportunities to re-examine the question of alterity and to arrive at a more adequate formulation of the way in which the self relates to the other. I therefore begin by demonstrating that the Transcendence of the Ego perpetuates the Cartesian tradition where the self is defined primarily in terms of thinking-that is, self-consciousness and immanence. Next, I turn to the Sartrean Psychology of Imagination to find another way of conceptualizing the problem. I inquire into his general theory of the imaginary consciousness defined as a 'picture consciousness' and argue that it reduces the alterity of the imaginary object to sheer absence. As such, the theory of imagination does not allow us to bring the fundamental character of alterity to light. Still, we uncover a more adequate way of dealing with alterity in the context of the imaginary life. I show that the notion of the 'picture itself' allows us to conceptualize alterity as the radical withdrawal of the other. Finally, I make evident that the imaginary subject is necessarily divided between itself and itself as another and due to that internal split, can grasp the alterity of another person.
20. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Lioudmila Tchernaya Philosophical-Anthropological Approach to Historic-Cultural Research
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This approach holds that the problem of humanity determines the history of culture. On the basis of theory developed by Max Scheler, I try to work out the main characteristics of cultural process, the typology of culture, and the periodization of culture. The humanities in Russia are in the midst of a methodological crisis now, and I hope that this approach will help us obtain a fuller understanding of culture.