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Displaying: 1-9 of 9 documents


1. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Irene de Puig, Angélica Sátiro Aprender a Pensar en la Educación Infantil (4 y 5 años)
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He aquí un proyecto para educación infantil como introducción al curriculum ‘Philosophy for Children’ creado por Matthew Lipman. Este proyecto ha sido desarrollado desde una perspectiva multicultural a partir de tres lenguas: catalán (TOT PENSANT), castellano (PENSANDO) y portugués (BRINCAR DE PENSAR). La finalidad de este proyecto no es convertir a los niños en pequeños o grandes filósofos sino en individuos que sepan tomar decisiones, que prevean consecuencias de sus acciones, que sean en la vida activa más reflexivos, considerados y razonables; es decir, se trata de mejorar la capacidad de juicio para mejorar la acción.
2. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Irene de Puig, Angélica Sátiro Filoso a Entre el Parvulario y la Primaria (De 5 a 7 años)
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Philosophy and Narrative’ is a program designed for five to seven-year-old children. It is intended to exercise basic intellectual skills in a dialogic way, as does the ‘Philosophy for Children’ curriculum. Using The Jolly Postman, a stimulating tale by the English authors A. and J. Ahlberg, as a basis, de Puig has prepared a manual entitled Cuentos para pensar (Tales for Thinking) which comprises a series of resources ordered and adapted to the text and the needs of the curriculum for this age range. This sequentially ordered manual includes a number of popular tales as well as exercises and activities that engage various cognitive skills such as reasoning, research, translation and conceptualization. So far, our classroom experience with these materials has been highly satisfactory. Teachers and children enjoy working with them, creating many activities and engaging in new experiences.
3. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
David Kennedy Notes on the Philosophy of Childhood and the Politics of Subjectivity
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The Western onto-theological tradition has long been preoccupied with two symbolizations of childhood. One conceives of it as an original unity of being and knowing, an exemplar of completed identity. The other conceives of childhood as deficit and danger, an exemplar of the untamed appetite and the uncontrolled will. In the economy of Plato and Aristotle’s tripartite self, the child is ontogenetically out of balance. She is incapable of bringing the three parts of the self into a right hierarchal relation based on the domination of reason. In other words, attaining adulthood means eradicating the child. Freud’s reformulation of the Platonic community of self combines the two symbolizations. His model creates an opening for shifting power relations between the elements of the self. He opens the way toward what Kristeva calls the "subject-in-process," a pluralism of relationships rather than an organization constituted by exclusions and hierarchies. After Freud, the child comes to stand for the inexpugnable demands of desire. Through dialogue with this child, the postmodern adult undergoes the dismantling of the notion of subjectivity based on domination, and moves toward the continuous reconstruction of the subject-in-process.
4. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Walter O. Kohan Filosofía y niñez: Posibilidades de un encuentro
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Percibimos órdenes dominantes y, a la vez, grietas o discontinuidades en ese mismo orden. Valores, saberes y prácticas imperan en nuestra experiencia al mismo tiempo que fisuras de ese imperio engendran asombros, dudas, moestias. De estos sentimientos se nutre el cuestionamiento y la investigación filosóficos, un intento, al fin, por superar la inmovilidad de aquellos órdenes imperantes. En efecto, la filosofía, en tanto tarea crítica, cuestiona los valores, ideas y creencias que permean las prácticas socialmente dominantes. A la vez, en tanto tarea creativa, la filosofía piensa otros órdenes, alternativos a los imperantes. Las disposiciones y métodos de la filosofía se ejercen sobre toda práctica significativa para desatar su caráter ordinario, rutinario o cotidiano. Se establecen así condiciones de posibilidad para nuevos estados de cosas. En ese doble moviento de poner en cuestión y poner en cuestión y proponer alternativas para un determinado ámbito de la realidad, la filosofía se despliega en un conjunto variado de "filosofías de . . . ": la mente, el lenguaje, la cultura, la religión, la educación, el deporte, la tecnología, entre otros.
5. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Félix García Moriyón ¿Para Qué Sirve Enseñar Filosofía?
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Los profesores de filosofía suelen afirmar que la filosofía debe ocupar un importante lugar en la educación de los niños y adolescentes. La filosofía les ponen en contacto con temas básicos para entender los fundamentos de la democracia y ayuda a que se desarrollen en ellos las capacidades cognitivas y afectivas exigidas en las sociedades complejas, plurales y cambiante de la actualidad. Falta de todas formas definir un poco mejor lo que entendemos por filosofía y cómo debe ser la enseñanza de la misma. La argumentación es correcta, pero no pasa de ser una argumentación filosófica más bien retórica, insuficiente para defender la presencia de la filosofía y poco clara para orientar la acción del profesorado en el aula. Hace falta en estos momentos desarrollar un amplio trabajo de investigación educativa centrado en la enseñanza de la filosofía. En esa investigación debemos confirmar la supuesta aportación de la filosofía y para ello hace falta, partiendo de un marco teórico solido y riguroso: a) definir con precisión que dimensiones desarrolla efectivamente la enseñanza de la filosofía; b) precisar cómo pueden ser observadas esas dimensiones en el aula; c) seleccionar los instrumentos que hagan posible medir el progreso en esas dimensiones; y d) diseñar las prácticas pedagógicas que ayuden a desarrollar esas dimensiones. Esto es lo que se presenta en este trabajo. Dedicado a la enseñanza de la filosofía en el bachillerato desde hace más de 25 años, me ha interesado siempre mucho la justificación de la presencia de esa asignatura, preocupación que se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a la reforma del sistema educativo español que has supuesto, en parte, una disminución de la presencia de la filosofía, al menos tal y como era concebida anteriormente. Este interés, que comparto con la mayor parte de mis compañeros de prefesión, me ha llevado a profundizar en tres aspectos que quiero abordar en este trabajo. En primer lugar, el término de filosofía y de enseñanza de la filosofía son tan amplios, o tan vagos, que no estoy muy seguro de que, cuando defendemos la presencia de la filosofía en la educación, todos estemos hablando de lo mismo. En segundo lugar, la argumentación que los colegas ofrecen para defender la presencia de la filosofía es, con frecuencia, por no decir siempre, absolutamente retórica e insuficiente para el objetivo que persiguen. En tercer lugar, carecemos de un marco teórico de investigación que permita con cierto rigor avanzar en la verificación del papel que la filosofía puede desempeñar en la enseñanza.
6. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Carmen López Sáenz Enseñar a Pensar Desde la Fenomenología
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The Philosophy Program for Children initially inspired by Lipman’s work has been successfully applied in different countries. This program defends the necessity to teach children to think philosophically. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary both that teachers are philosophically educated and that philosophy is included in the curriculum of all schools. The aim of this paper is to show that phenomenology helps toward the success of this task as much as pragmatism, the tradition that inspired Lipman. The interest of Husserl and his followers in Lebenswelt and in knowledge makes pedagogical reflection and practice richer. Phenomenological applications and methodologies are so broad that they give education a critical orientation. The controversy between Merleau-Ponty and Piaget shows the validity of the Philosophy Program for Children. Hermeneutic phenomenology goes deeply into dialogue, an activity essential to the institution of an investigative community in the educational process.
7. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Christina Slade Why Not lie?: Television talk and moral debate
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This paper proposes that we should aim to refine talk about issues in soap opera as a means of developing moral reasoning skills. I begin with a report of work at schools in New Jersey over 1996-97, during which excerpts of a popular soap opera, 'Party of Five,' were used as the basis of a rigorous philosophical discussion of moral behavior. I then turn to the distinctive role of soap opera as a locus of moral discussion, with an example of a Mexicana telenovela. I suggest that children are already engaged in moral debate about soap operas and are eager to develop a more rigorous critical framework for the debate. I argue that children appreciate the opportunity to flesh out the school yard gossip about soap operas with a philosophically sophisticated discussion. My approach draws on the work of Matthew Lipman in philosophy for children, Neil Postman's critique of television, and David Buckingham's analysis of children's responses to television.
8. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Wendy C. Turgeon Metaphysical Horizons of Philosophy for Children
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Central to the explanations of justifications for Philosophy for Children is the concept of the 'community of inquiry.' This paper explores the question of the metaphysical foundations for this notion in terms of the nature of the individual versus the community and the question of truth.
9. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Ana María Vicuña Navarro Ethical Education Through Philosophical Discussion
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This paper addresses the problem of educating for democracy in Chile and other places where human rights have been violated. Based on a research project conducted about the ethical foundations of human rights, I maintain that ethical education must be an indispensable ingredient of an education for democracy. I argue that an effective ethical education requires both an appropriate setting for the fostering of an open and tolerant discussion, and adequate guidance from the teacher for the understanding of complex ethical problems. As the ideal setting for it, I propose the creation of a ‘Community of Inquiry’ as it is understood and practised by the Philosophy for Children Program created by Matthew Lipman. As the basis both for identifying the main problems and for the training of the teachers, I build on Ernst Tugendhat’s ethical theories. The most significant consequence for ethical education derived from Tugendhat is the inclusion of a discussion of the problem of the foundation of ethics in order to avoid ethical relativism resting on the individual’s personal decision to belong to a moral community. To this the child should be invited through philosophical dialogue in a community of inquiry.