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Displaying: 1-10 of 43 documents


articulos
1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Ernesto García Camarero Evocación de Torres Quevedo
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2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Leonardo Torres Quevedo Dos textos anticipadores sobre máquinas algebráicas y sobre Automática
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Com recuerdo y fiel homenaje a nuestro genial compatrinta, el ingeniero e inventar santanderino Leonardo Torres Quevedo, THEORIA quiere reeoger hoy en sus páginas dos breves, claros y luminosostextos -el primero sobre máquinas algébricas (1901) y el segundo sobre el alcance de una nueva ciencia: la Automática (1915)- de aquel español itinerante e infatigable que, como muy contadascompatriotas, supo aliar claridad y rlgor lógico en las definiciones de los conceptos básicos y desbordante inventiva creadora en la estricta y audaz aplicación técnica de los mismos.Acompaña a estos textos la inolvidable imagen del primer ajedrecista automático (electromagnetico) concebido y construido por Torres Quevedo, anticipador también en la era electromecanica de los que habían de seguirle en la electrónica e informática y triunfador póstumo, en 1951, en el primer Congreso Cibernético de París, donde fué examinado por el hijo del inventor español y el padre de la Cibernética, Norbert Wiener, tres años después de la aparición en el M.I.T. de la primera edición inglesa de la obra de éste último Cybemetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine (1948) que iba a inaugurar la era de la Cibernética, anticipada en tantas ideas, muchos decenios antes, por la Automática de nuestro Torres Quevedo.
estudios
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Victor Sánchez de Zavala Rúbricas léxicas y actuación lingüística
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Several highly disregarded but important facts about linguistic performance constIain possible theories on general form in lexical entIies. Even semantic theories where these facts can be accomodatedremain undeveloped in this area. Taking advantage as a heuristic resource of a logical concept traceable to Hilbert a rational reconstIuction of lexical learning can be advanced, from which it is derived a first version of the general form of lexical entIies. An extension on the procedure allows development of an improved version. Under some natural assumptions the final proposal accounts for the problematic facts. It is suggested that the heuristic and possible explanatory power of this approach be tested on some semantical topics currently discussed.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Gérold Stahl Á la recherche d’une grammaire universelle
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Since antiquity many philosophers and grammarians were looking for what is “behind” the particular grammars, for something like “the unchangeable principles common to all languages”. Even limitingourselves to the most concrete aspects of such a general grammar, we may ask whether there is something realizable among the risky hipotheses and the vague projects.In this paper we do not try to discover something more or less hidden in the particular grammars, but to show, in a very general way, some directions for constructing, eventually, an universal grammar. Four approaches are mentioned:(1) artificial universal languages like Esperanto,(2) systems of automatic analysis of a language,(3) programming languages,(4) the first-order systems of logic.It is shown how those approaches (and the experiences acquired in working with them might be combined; but wether this combination produces interesting results and brings us nearer to an universal and rational grammar of our computerized epoch is an open question, which can be answered only by practical experience.
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Héctor-Neri Castañeda Practical Reason, Reasons for Doing and Intentional Action
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To come to know what to do is to have a thought which itself consists of an awareness of its bringing about an action, or a rearrangement of one’s causal powers...The causal dimension of practical thinking is the coalescence of contemplation and the causation of that contemplation, and the contemplation of that causation.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Víctor Gómez Pin Ontología e historia deI Calculus
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It is well known that the history of Calculus in the nineteenth century coincides with the process of substitution of infinitesimals by the notion of limit. But it is adviseable to keep in mind the ontological implications of that process.We can find a background for this ontological approach in Abraham Robinson’s Non-Standard AnaIysis and “The Metaphysics of the Calculus”. Indeed, by the choice of the word “metaphysics” and by the several recalls of the ontological nature of the arguments, Robinson claims for a filiation which is at the same time fruitful in the mathematical register and necessary for a true philosophical reflection about the infinite.
7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Javier Aracil Estructura y comportamiento en teoría de sistemas
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New results have been obtained by dynamical systems theory which allow an ammendment of the narrow vision of mechanicism. Forms of behavior richer than the ones considered by classicalmechanicism can be exhibited by the new structures studied by system theory (feedback, reaction-diffusion, hierarchical structures, multiple timescales...). In this paper a critical presentation of these ideas is developed.
8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Alicia Sánchez-Mazas, Laurent Excoffier, André Langaney Measure and Representation of the Genetic Similarity between Populations by the Percentage of Isoactive Genes
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A similarity index allowing comparisons of human populations has been defined as the common “Percentage of Isoactive Genes” or PIG, which can be calculated from any gene frequency distribution characterizing two populations. The complement to one of this value has been proved to be a distance, a measure which can be used in most techniques of cluster analysis as well as in usual representations of multivariated data (dendrograms, etc...). Furthermore, the formula can be generalized to a set of populations. From a biological point of vue, PIG values are particularly meaningful, whereas other previously defined indices which tend to measure similarity or difference between populations neither have such an advantage, nor can they be expressed by a single and clear number like a percentage. Moreover,comparisons using PIG indices depend at first on the fluctuations of the most frequent genes of a distribution; on the other hand, different measures principally reflect the variations of low frequency genes, which unfortunately are nearly always poorly estimated, due to weak samples of populations.Interestingly, PIG values can be applied to any frequency distribution of any kind of objects. They can also extend to a whole set of distributions by using a mean value. When applying these measures to a series of polymorphic genetical systems such as ABO, Rhesus, MNSs, Gm and HLA, one can account for the variability or the homogeneity particular to the different human groups, with simple and objective criteria.
discusion
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Jose Sanmartín Esplugues Somas monos, pero menos
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This paper is an extensive evaluation of the nowdays sociobiology and of the prominent subdiscipline that deals with humans. At the same time an interactional perspective is developed, according to which the relation between organism and environment is a dialectical development of organism and milieu in response to each other. Finally the relations between genetical memory and individual memory are examined. In this way, it attempts to provide an unitary, but nonreductionist account of the humans.
notas
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Giuseppe Antoni Un apparente paradosso relativistico connesso con le masse in moto
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No paradox exists in the fact that, in the Special Relativity, for the mass of a material body, considered in motion at constant speed, whose measure is u, the formula: m = m0/√(1-u²/c²) can be written , while for a photon the same formula holds, when between its source and the observer a state of relative motion at constant speed, whose measure is u, exists and it is observed along the direction perpendicular to the direction of his speed.