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estudios
1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Ciaus Emmeche The Computational Notion of Life
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The present paper discusses a topic often neglected by contemporary philosophy of biology: The relation between metaphorical notions of living organisms as information processing systems, the attempts to model such systems by computational means (e.g., Artificial Life research), and the idea that life itself is a computational phenomenon. This question has ramifications in theoretical biology and thedefinition of Iife, in theoretical computer science and the concept of computation, and in semiotics (the study of signs in the most general sense, including information, signification, and meaning), and the concept of the interpreter. It is argued, that the theory of autopoietic systems known from theoretical biology should be integrated with a biosemiotic reflection on the natural history of signs.
2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Cláudio Souto Beyond the Autosufficiency of Collectivistic Approaches in Social Thought
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The article presents an unified theoretical model in which the postulates encompass simultaneously the mental and the social, social microphenomena and social macrophenomena. Accordingly, the possibility of ampleness remains open to many theorems deduced or deducible from the axioms.The model is confronted with a pretended methodological autosufficiency of collectivistic approaches in social thought and with the assumption, atributed to utilitarian theories (including expected utility theories), that individuals are rational in their behavior.The article maintains that the choice between alternatives (to be made individually or socially) can be viewed with more comprehensiveness and consequently with a higher explanatory power if explicitly referred to the general basic traits of human mind (feeling-idea-volition).
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Cristina Lafont Referencia y verdad
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The main thesis of this article consists in that the two concepts “reference” and “truth” have an ultimate realist sense of which all epistemologizing conceptions -like relativism and incommensurabilist theses- necessarily have to come short. The arguments for this thesis are embedded in a revision of the ‘direct’-reference-position as well as of recent arguments against epistemic notions of truth, to show in the next,evaluating step how it is exactly the realist kernel of both concepts that makes arguments as to the corrective function of both notions within epistemic practices possible. This nucleus of both notions, necessary for every intent to explain learning from experience, consists in the supposition of an objective world to which all speakers refer using the same concepts and which is represented by their statements. This supposition does not inevitably have to be interpreted as a metaphysical postulate of a world in itself, but can be seen, the author argues, as a necessary formal presupposition ofcommunication, which is mastered by the speakers themselves through their having learned to use desigantive expressions referentially as well as to use the true/false distinction in its normative bipolarity.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Michel Serfati Regulae et Mathématiques
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L’histoire du texte des Régles pour la Direction de l’Esprit (Regulae) de Descartes est un peu singulière: non publié du vivant de Descartes, il n’a paru qu’en 1701, dans les Opera Posthuma d’Amsterdam. De façon plus significative, et contrairement aux autres traités cartésiens perdus, ce texte secret n’est jamais explicitement evoqué par Descartes, fût-ce au détour d’une correspondance. Par leur étroite dépendance vis à vis des mathématiques, les Regulae sont cependant un texte majeur, constitutives de la pensée de leur auteur dans ses années de jeunesse (1619-1628), et par là de toute la philosophie moderne. Descartes avait jugé le texte suffisamment important pour I’emmener à Stockholm, où il a été découvert apres sa mort, dans ses papiers.Entre les mathématiques et les Regulae, ce texte “éclatant et obscur” (J.P. Weber), il est ces trois types principaux de rapports croisés que nous tâcherons d’analyser: historiquement d’abord, quelles furent la formation et I’expérience mathématique du jeune Descartes, qui constituerent, à notre sens, I’armature conceptuelle du texte. Quelles sont ensuite les voies par lesquelles, dans les Regulae, Descartes a putransmuer cette expérience mathématique premiere à la fois en une pratique, une méthode, une théorie de la connaissance, enfin en une épistémologie assez radicalement neuve. Enfin, et prenant Descartes au sérieux nous examinerons à I’occasion cette question: quel est le sort réservé, de nos jours, à cette épistémologie cartésienne, en particulier confrontée aux mathématiques contemporaines?
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Matthias Schirn Frege y los nombres de cursos de valores
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Frege’s method of introducing abstract singular terms by transforming an equivalence statement into an identity statement suffers from one major defect: it is haunted by a pervasive indeterminacy of putative reference. In this paper, I. discuss mainly Frege’s introduction of courses-of-values in his magnum opus Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (Volume I, 1893, Volume 11, 1903). More specifically, I want to assesscritically, with respect to course-of-values names, what I call Frege’s indeterminacy problem. In the first part, I sketch the nature of this problem in connection with the introduction of numerical singular terms in his book Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik of 1884. In the second part, I try to shed light on the analogies and differences concerning the introduction of numerical terms on the one hand and of course-of-values terms on the other.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Layman E. Allen, Charles S. Saxon Controlling Inadvertent Ambiguity in the Logical Structure of Legal Drafting by Means of the Prescribed Definitions of the A-Hohfeld StructuralLanguage
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Two principal sources of imprecision in legal drafting (vagueness and ambiguity) are identified and illustrated. Virtually all of the ambiguity imprecision encountered in legal discourse is ambiguity in the language used to express logical structure, and virtually all of the imprecision resulting is inadvertent. On the other hand, the imprecision encountered in legal writing that results from vagueness is frequently, if not most often, included there deliberately; the drafter has considered it and decided that the vague language best accomplishes the purpose at hand. This paper focuses on the use of some defined terminology for minimizing inadvertent ambiguity in the logical structure of legal discourse, where desired by the drafter. The current set of signaled structural definitions that are included in the A-Hohfeld language are first set forth and their use is illustrated in an extensive example from the treaty establishing the European Economic Community. The use of definitions in legal writing is widespread, butaddressed almost exclusively to controlling the vagueness of substantive legal terms; they are seldom used for structural purposes. Furthermore, their use in American legislative drafting is unsignaled. Here, attention is devoted to the relatively-neglected domain in legal discourse of imprecisely expressed logical structure, and the remedy offered, where desired by the drafter, is a set of signaled structuraldefinitions for use in controlling such imprecision.
7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
L. Thorne McCarty Ownership: A Case Study in the Representation of Legal Concepts
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This paper is an exercise in computational jurisprudence. It seems clear that the field of AI and Law should draw upon the insights of legal philosophers, whenever possible. But can the computational perspective offer anything in return? We explore this question by focusing on the concept of OWNERSHIP, which has been debated in the jurisprudential literature for centuries. Although the intellectual currents here flow mostly in one direction -from legal philosophy to AI- we show that there are also some insights to be gained from a computational analysis of the OWNERSHIP relation. In particular, the paper suggests a computational explanation for the emergence of abstract property rights, divorced from concrete material objects.
notas
8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Amparo Diez Nota sobre Pluralidad y Recursión: Ontosemántica fregeana para un analisis de las teorías
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In this note I discuss some topics recently analysed by C.U. Moulines in Pluralidad y recursión showing the interest of Frege’s ontosemantic theory for the study of scientific theories. I point out some misunderstandings in making use of fregean view by clarifying the basic notions of objectivity, sense, reference, concept, and object. It is not my aim here to solve the difficulties arising the possibility of identifying two theories as one. Nevertheless, I ofter some clues to achieve such an identity theory that stricto sensu would be an equivalence theory.
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Antonio Caba Nota aclaratoria sobre los manuales de Lógica de los anos 70 en España
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libros y revistas
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
José Ramón Arana Los caminos de la Reflexión: Historia de la Filosofía I. Del saber del Orden a la nostalgia dei Bien
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