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Displaying: 1-10 of 71 documents


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1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Ilie Parvu Editorial Introduction
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2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Ilie Parvu The Unity of Scientific Knowledge in the Framework of a Typological Approach of Theories
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The paper proposes a typology of the scientific theories based on the modality of mathematizing (relying on the kind of mathematics which participates to the theory edification and the level of mathematical organizing of the theoretical frame). This gives us, like the classification of the geometries from the famous -Erlagen Program- initiated by Felix Klein, an internal principle for the connection of the different forms or levels of the theorizing, a constructive basis for the understanding of the complex structural nets of the mature scientific disciplines.
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Mircea Flonta Does the Scientific Paper Accurately Mirror the Very Grounds of Scientific Assessment?
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This paper presents aprevalent representation about the objectivity and impartiality of scientific knowledge that emerges from the structure and style of the standard research paper. This representation is critically examined considering some rather untypical scientific papers reporting controversies between researchers in a certain field of experimental science. The role of personal preconceptions and intellectual prejudices in the assessment of scientific theories is emphasized by reference to Einsteinls grounds for his general theory of relativity.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Adrian-Paul Iliescu Rational Reconstruction: Preconditions and Limits
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the preconditions and the limits of rational reconstruction in the philosophy of language, as these preconditions and limits can be deduced from Wittgenstein’s arguments against philosophical constructivism. It will be shown that a main precondition of reconstructions in the field of language is the existence of non-arbitrary patterns of linguistic use, while the limits of this kind of theoretical enterprise derive precisely from the absence of such patterns.
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Valentin Muresan Transcendentalism, Nomicity and Modal Thought
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The main purpose of this paper is to show that Kant’s transcendental philosophy is tacitly laden with the structures of modern modal thought. More exactly, the surprising parallelism which seems to exist between Kant’s manner of defining necessity (and, on this basis, nomicity) and the modern approaches of the same concepts in the frame of “possible worlds philosophy” is stressed. A new interpretation of the Categorical Imperative is also offered on this basis.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Adrian Miroiu Global Warming and Moral Theorizing
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The aim of my paper is to explore in some detail some epistemological issues concerning moral theorizing on global warming. First, I consider the issue of the structure of the theoretical approach in a field of inquiry requiring normative assessments. How do theoretical principles work here? What is to be regarded as a normative evidence for such a theory? Second, the criteria to determine which part, if any, of the theory gets normatively constrained, and which does not, are discussed. Third, I focus on the procedures to reach an equilibrium between such a theory and its evidence and to reach it, changes might be required on the normative side of the theory, rather than on its non-normative one
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7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Alejandro Sobrino Presentación
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8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Enric Trillas Menger’s Trace in Fuzzy Logic
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This paper deals with the relation with Fuzzy Logic of some of the ideas of Karl Menger published between 1942 and 1966 and concerning what he called “Hazy Sets”, Probabilistic Relations and Statistical Metric Spaces. The author maintains the opinion that if Lofti A. Zadeh is actually the father of Fuzzy Logic, Menger not only was a forerunner of this field but that his ideas were and still are influential on it.
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Rohit Parikh Vague Predicates and Language Games
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Attempts to give a Logic or Semantics for vague predicates and to defuse the Sorites paradoxes have been largely a failure. We point out yet another problem with these predicates which has not been remarked on before,namely that different people do and must use these predicates in individually different ways. Thus even if there were a semantics for vague predicates, people would not be able to share it. To explain the occurrence nonetheless of these troublesome predicates in language, we propose a different approach based on asking the question, “How do these vague predicates help people to communicate with each other?” We show that in general, even though different people assign different extensions to vague predicates, they usually benefit from receiving information framed in terms of them.
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Didier Dubois, Henri Prade New Trends and Open Problems in Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning
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This short paper about fuzzy set-based approximate reasoning first emphasizes the three main semantics for fuzzy sets: similarity, preference and uncertainty. The difference between truth-functional many-valued logics of vague or gradual propositions and non fully compositional calculi such as possibilistic logic (which handles uncertainty) or similarity logics is stressed. Then, potentials of fuzzy set-based reasoning methods are briefly outlined for various kinds of approximate reasoning: deductive reasoning about flexible constraints, reasoning under uncertainty and inconsistency, hypothetical reasoning, exception-tolerant plausible reasoning using generic knowledge, interpolative reasoning, and abductive reasoning (under uncertainty). Open problems are listed in the conclusion.