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1. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Mihhail Lotman, Maria-Kristiina Lotman Editors’ preface
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2. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Mihhail Lotman Verse as a semiotic system
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Poetry is an important challenge for semiotics, and a special area of study for the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school, since the first volume of Sign Systems Studies was Juri Lotman’s monograph Lectures on Structural Poetics (1964). From then on the concept of poetry as one of the secondary modelling systems has evolved, since in relation to poetry, the primary modelling system is natural language. In this paper, the concept of semiotic system has been re-examined and the treatment of primary and secondary semiotic systems has been significantly revised. A semiotic system can be characterized not only by its internal structure and other systems to which it is related, but also by the field upon what it is realized. The latter aspect has gained almost no attention in any treatment of semiotics; the execution of a sign is understood in the spirit of Saussure and Hjelmslev as a material realization of an abstract element (for instance, a chess piece knight can be realized with wood or plastic, but it can also remain purely virtual). At first, distinction is made between language and sign system. Every sign system consists of language and field. There are three different kinds of fields: 1) just a background – footprints on sand are a sign on the background of sand; 2) a material structured field (a football ground or a chess board in the game called Chapayev) and 3) an abstract structured field, which in its turn consists of other fields (for instance, the chess board which consists of 64 fields). Differently from a football ground, a chess board can be a purely virtual one on which virtual pieces are moved (for instance, in case of blindfold or correspondence chess). The field in its turn can be language and one language can use another language as its field. In this case we speak of primary and secondary sign systems. For instance, the prosodic system of language is a field for a verse metre, while the semantic system of language is a field for a narrative.
3. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Mihhail Lotman Поэзия как семиотическая система. Резюме
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4. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Mihhail Lotman Varss kui semiootiline susteem. Kokkuvõte
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semiotics of verse
5. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Eva Lilja Some aspects of poetic rhythm: An essay in cognitive metrics
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Rhythm should be regarded as a perceptional category rather than as a property of the work of art. Rhythm might be classified according to three principles, serial rhythm, sequential rhythm and dynamic rhythm, three basic sets of gestalt qualities that lay the foundation for versification systems.Two schemas decide the rhythm of a poem: direction and balance. ‘Direction’ refers to rising and falling movements in the line. ‘Balance’ refers to repetitions in a play between symmetry and asymmetry as well as a moment of rest.Rhythms produce meaning, probably due to the fact that rhythms activate internalized bodily experiences as well as conventional meaning patterns. This is demonstrated on the basis of a poem by Sylvia Plath.
6. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Eva Lilja Poeetilise rutmi aspekte: essee kognitiivsest meetrikast. Kokkuvõte
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7. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Eva Lilja Некоторые аспекты поэтического ритма: эссе в области когнитивной метрики. Резюме
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8. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Marina Tarlinskaja Rhythm and meaning: “Rhythmical deviations” as italics
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English iambic pentameter allows rhythmical deviations that occupy three (seldom four, more often two) adjacent metrical positions. These deviations, thoughmetrical, are noticed by the listener or reader. Starting from the first quarter of the 16th century, poets (Surrey) have used rhythmical deviations to emphasize (“italicize”) semantically important segments in the line. Such rhythmical deviations have become part of the English poetic traditions. It has turned out that rhythmical deviations used to italicize meaning are filled with recurring rhythmical and grammatical structures and repeated lexicon. M. L. Gasparov used a special term to denote the recurring rhythmical-grammatical structures: “cliches”; while calling cliches incorporating recurrent lexicon “formulas”. I have discovered that formulas are part of the English poetic tradition: the same formulas recur in poetic texts of the 16th–20th cc. They are not plagiarisms, allusionsor reminiscences; they are a common basket of goods that belong to all English poets, used by all and owned by none. The recurrent deviations usually occur on metrical positions “weak-strong-weak-strong” and as a rule contain a monosyllabic (rarely – disyllabic) verb-predicate followed by a monosyllabic grammatical word (e.g. an article), an adjective-attribute and a noun – a direct object to the verb. The recurring lexicon includes verbs of motion, particularly verbs of fast, aggressive motion, an action directed downwards or causing an injury or death, and recurring nouns referring to moving objects or agents (hands, arms, wings; spear, sword). I term such recurring formulas “rhythmical italics”.
9. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Marina Tarlinskaja Rutm ja tahendus: “rutmilised korvalekalded” kui kursiiv. Kokkuvõte
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10. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1/2
Marina Tarlinskaja Ритм и смысл: ≪ритмичесие отклонения≫ как ритмический курсив. Резюме
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