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the problem of future contingents
1. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Marcin Tkaczyk Marcin Tkaczyk
The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events
Antynomia Przyszłych Zdarzeń Przygodnych

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The antinomy of future contingents is here understood as a trilemma whose horns are (a) the thesis of the closed past, (b) the thesis of the open future, and (c) the thesis that all events can be represented at any time. The latter thesis can take different forms, like the principle of bivalence or the thesis of divine foreknowledge. Different versions of (c) lead to different versions of the antinomy itself. The antinomy has been formalized. It hasbeen proven that the theses (a), (b), and (c) make up an inconsistent set but are consistent with each other. Possible solutions have been considered. It has been argued that there are only two global solutions to the antinomy: radical determinism (fatalism) and retroactive causality. The latter solution has been recommended and developed.
2. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Ciro de Florio, Aldo Frigerio Ciro de Florio
Fragmented Future Contingents and Omniscience
Fragmentaryczne Przyszłe Zdarzenia Przygodne I Wszechwiedza

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In this paper, we have analyzed a number of solutions to the antinomy between divine foreknowledge and human freedom. If we assume that God is temporal, then a sort of backwards causation of past divine beliefs by future human acts must be acknowledged. Since this solution runs into difficulties, we consider the prospects of the view according to which God is outside time. A timeless and omniscient God seems to imply a B-theory of time and, at least at first glance, seems to jeopardize human freedom. Therefore, we have examined what happens when a non-standard A-theory of time like Fragmentalism is assumed. We demonstrate that in this case the prospects of a timeless view of God are much better: both human freedom and divine knowledge of the results of human choices are preserved if this metaphysics of time is adopted. The costs of this solution are, however, very high. From the logical point of view, it rejects bivalence; from the metaphysical point of view, the world is regarded as fragmentary and incoherent. However, if one is ready to accept these costs, this solution is one of the most successful in the search for a solution to the centuries-old problem of the conciliation between divine foreknowledge and human freedom.
3. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Paweł Garbacz Paweł Garbacz
On the Representation if States of Affairs in the Antinomy of Future Contingents
O Reprezentacji Stanów Rzeczy W Antynomii Futura Contingentia

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The paper is a comment on the formalization of the antinomy of futura contigentia in the form of a (inconsistent) theory formulated by Marcin Tkaczyk in the language of classical predicate calculus. I argue that some features of the formalization in question are controversial from the viewpoint of formal semantics and ontology, and suggest two ways of removing some of those controversies.
4. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Jacek J. Jadacki Jacek J. Jadacki
Causal and Functional Determination vs. Foreknowledge about the Future
Determinacja Kauzalna I Funkcjonalna vs. Przedwiedza O Przyszłości

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The author of the paper critically analyzes a quasi-theory of future contingents (PFC) given by Marcin Tkaczyk and proposes his own explication of its theses and terms. The author makes it by introducing operational definitions of temporal and modal concepts, distinguishing between the causal and functional determination, discussing the status of the principle of bivalence, and replacing Tkaczyk’s theses by their new formulations. As a result, the author states, among other things, that (contrary to Tkaczyk) there is no contradiction between the thesis about the opened future and the thesis about divine omniscience, because it requires the causal (but not functional as it is a case) determination between a true proposition and its determined fact. The author also shows that Tkaczyk’s examples of the retroactive causes are not an accurate solution of the antinomy because they are, at most, the examples of the factors which change the picture of the past but not the past itself.
5. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Simo Knuuttila Simo Knuuttila
Medieval Approaches to Future Contingents
Średniowieczne Ujęcia Problemu Przyszłych Zdarzeń Przygodnych

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This paper discusses the main lines of medieval Latin approaches to future contingents with some remarks on Marcin Tkaczyk’s paper “The antinomy of future contingent events.” Tkaczyk’s theory shows some similarity with the general frame of the views of Ockham and Scotus, the difference being that while medieval authors argued for the temporal necessity of the past, Tkaczyk is sceptical of the general validity of this necessity. Ockham’s theological view was that God eternally has an intuitive and immutable knowledge of all possibilities as well as whether they are ever actualized or not (PANACCIO & PICHÉ 2010). The content of God’s past knowledge attitude remains contingent before the free choice takes place because God’s knowledge could be different similarly as the truth-value of the proposition. While Ockham held that no past or present thing follows from future things as an effect follows from its cause, this causal link is defended by Tkaczyk. Later thinkers thought that the doctrine of the scientia media sheds light on this question; perhaps it is easier to understand than the retroactive model which is not contradictory but difficult to imagine, as Tkaczyk concludes his paper.
6. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Dariusz Łukasiewicz Dariusz Łukasiewicz
Marcin Tkaczyk’s Ockhamism, or Whether the Theory of Contingentia Praeterita is the only Plausible Solution to the Problem of FuturaContingentia
Ockhamizm Marcina Tkaczyka, Czyli O Tym, Czy Teoria Contingentia Praeterita Jest Jedynym Możliwym Rozwiązaniem Problemu Futura Contingentia

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In the first part of this article, we point out and discuss these the contained in Marcin Tkaczyk’s book, Futura Contingentia, with which we agree completely or at least partially. In the second part of the paper, we seek to consider whether the solution of the futura contingentia problem, rooted in the basic intuitions of William of Ockham, is the only one possible and available for us. We argue that there is another possible approach to the problem of how to reconcile divine omniscience with contingent events rather than the Ockhamist solution. The alternative view, which we suggest, is “eternalism”, meaning that God is timeless, and that temporal necessity is compatible with contingent events and free decisions.
7. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
William E. Mann William E. Mann
Past, Present, or Future: What’s The Difference?
Przeszłość, Teraźniejszość, Przyszłość

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This essay examines Marcin Tkaczyk’s “The antinomy of future contingent events,” with an eye towards clarifying the roles played by philosophical notions of propositions, events, the present, the relativity of time, and Tkaczyk’s notion of a “sphere of culture.” The essay concludes by examining what support might be offered for Tkaczyk’s claim that people can to some degree change the past.
8. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Timothy Pawl Timothy Pawl
A Reply to “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events”
Odpowiedź Na Artykuł „The Antinomy Of Future Contingent Events”

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In this brief reply I discuss Fr. Marcin Tkaczyk’s excellent article, “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events.” I first raise some concerns about his understanding of representation. I then raise three concerns about his preferred solution to the antinomy: first, that a part of his theory of representation itself motivates a rejection of proposition 1 of the antinomy; second, that one needn’t employ retroactive causal connections to weaken 1 as he does; and third, that it is difficult to make sense of the sort of backward efficient causation that Tkaczyk requires for his solution to work.
9. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Jacek Wojtysiak Jacek Wojtysiak
Future Contingents, Ockhamism (Retroactivism) and Thomism (Eternalism)
Futura Contingentia, Ockhamizm (Retroaktywizm) I Tomizm (Eternalizm)

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In the current paper, I enter into debate with Marcin Tkaczyk and the chosen Anglo-Saxon analytic philosophers of religion to discuss the theological version of the problem of future contingents. I take into consideration some varieties of Ockhamism (retroactivism)—the position denying the temporal necessity (non-determination) of all past events and allowing some form of retroactivity. Strong Ockhamism postulates real retroactive causation, moderate Ockhamism limits it to the meanings of physical and psychical events, and weak Ockhamism replaces the notion of retroactive causation with that of retroactive dependence. I compare different forms of retroactivism with eternalism (of Boethius, St. Anselm of Canterbury, and St. Thomas Aquinas) to show that the latter has significant advantage. At the same time, I point out that eternalism in its presentist and relativist version (proposed by Brian Leftow) avoids the objections put forward against it, and that, within such eternalism, the problem of future contingents does not arise.
10. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 66 > Issue: 4
Jan Woleński Jan Woleński
Is the Past Determined (Necessary)?
Czy Przeszłość Jest Zdeterminowana (Konieczna)?

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This paper is inspired by Marcin Tkaczyk’s works and discusses the problem of the necessity of the past (is the past determined?) and its role in the analysis of future contingents. The discussion centers on the statements (accepted by Tkaczyk, but slightly paraphrased)) firstly, that every past state of affairs is determined, and, secondly, that at least some some future states of affairs are contingent. The paper argues that because the first assertion is not justified, the antinomy of future contingents does not arise. The argument uses modal and metalogical devices.