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ProtoSociology

Volume 3, Juli 1992
Lebenswelt und System I

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Displaying: 1-10 of 19 documents


1. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Paul Janssen Lebenswelt, Wissen und Wissenschaft - Möglichkeiten ihrer Konstellation
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The world of daily life - taken as a product of cultural beings living in a certain state of knowledge -is in the philosophical reflexion not primary of interest as a field of scientific research. Life-world - constituted in itself by knowledge - provides an occasion to discuss the pretensions of social and philosophical sciences. This paper tries to outline some possibilities to see the relations between knowledge of different levels as a means to advance the understanding of the role of daily life and scientific knowledge.
2. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Alexander Ullig Lebenswelt und Reflexion: Anhang: Lebenswelt als Fundament der Wissenschaft
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At first place the article should serve as clarification of the term "lifeworld" ("Lebenswelt) by means of selected lifeworld-conceptions of 20th. century philosophy.I would like to explikate the attempts of reflexive reference to lifeworld which exist in the concept of Husserl, Heidegger, Wittgenstein and Searle. According to the explanations of Husserl and Heidegger my main interest lies in the problematic of validity. The relation between lifeworld and reflection shall be dealt with in the light of the philosophy of language (Wittgenstein, Searle).At least I would like to discuss the relation between tifeword and science.
3. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Richard Münch Autopoiesis per Definitionen
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This paper argues that Niklas Luhmann's theory of modem society's differentiation into autopoietically operating subsystems is widely accepted on false grounds. Modem society's empirical differentiation into relatively autonomous subsystems is falsely taken as the empirical point of reference for Luhmann's theory. Luhmann, his advocates and his critics; however; conflate analytical differentiation with empirical differentiation which occurs on a basis completely opposite to autopoiesis. Empirical differentiation consists of the permanent production and reproduction of codes and programs for economic, political, legal or other types of action by societal struggles which include elements of cultural legitimation, legal regulation, political enforcement and economic calculation. Such codes and programs are not evolutionary universals but historically particular institutions. Secondary conservative and critical interests support Luhmann's theory because they take it as a reflection of what they want either to preserve or to change, as the case many be.
4. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Göran Ahrne Outline of an Organizational Theory of Society
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It is argued that organizations are the mechanisms that transform human action into social processes. Organizations are the origins of individuality and organizations are the foundations of what is regarded as societies. Four features make up the basis of organizations a) affiliation and exclusion b) resources c) exchangeability of individuals d) accumulative control. There are four main types of organizations: enterprises, voluntary associations, states and families. The main social actors are the organizational centaurs, which are part human and part organization. Social processes and social change are analyzed in terms of interaction between ana constellations of organizations. Organizations transcend the boundaries of systems and societies.
5. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Gerhard Preyer System-, Medien- und Evolutionstheorie. Zu Niklas Luhmanns Ansatz: Exkurs: Macht
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The paper presents an outline of the systemtheory of Niklas Luhmann. The foci here are the basic conceptual decisions of his approach, the relationship between systems-, media- and theory of social evolution on the one hand and the status of systemrationality and the rationalization of lifeworld on the other. One aspect of Luhmann's theorizing will be discussed critically, namly the status of relationship between structure and process of the social integration in terms of norms which regulate the interaction process.
6. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Bertram Schefhold Normative Integration der Einzeldisziplinen in gesellschaftstheoretischer Fragestellung
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The individual disciplines of the social sciences appear to be divided as if they were concerned with different objects but they are united through many of the questions which they are asked to answer. Although the individual disciplines were about to be institutionally separated at the time of the historical school major proponents of the historical method like Schmoller were still able to combine the different approaches in a unified framework The psychology of individuals establishes a link between social behaviour and economic interests. The intuuitive method allows to understand analogies between different manifestations of the lifestyle in a nation. There have to be coherent ethical norms for individual behaviour; social integration and economic cooperation. The article describes how Schmoller came to treat ethics as a unifying principle of sociological and economic research, starting from observations on the unifying power of culture in Germany in the classical period. Lessons are drawn for modern interdisciplinary research by examining examples of topical research projects.
7. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Jakob Schissler Politische Kultur, Öffentliche Meinung und politisches System in den USA
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Public Opinion in the United States of America can rightfully be described as an important part of everyday life. It is shaped by different structural constraints as well as through social interaction. In order to relate public Opinion and political Culture it is therefore necesary to begin with methodological presuppositions. In this article a qualitative macro-sociological approach is put foreward instead of methodological individualism. It is argued that it is possible to delineate elements of the political culture within the realm of public opinion from a cultural standpoint.American political culture is used here to illuminate some traits of public opinion: Republicanism, the Liberal Tradition, Populism, Civil Religion and a specific brand of american Can-do-Philosophy.Vied form this perspective political culture as well as public opinion in the United States provide a system of complex world views which might best be interpreted through the schema approach known form cognition psychology. Criticism form communitarians as well as from multiculturalists against a supposedly closed system of every-day has to therefore be rejected.
8. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Reinhold Schmitt Das Konzept der Präsenzfigur: Ein Beitrag zur Integration von Konversationsanalyse und objektiver Hermeneutik
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The concept "Präsenzfigur" combines conversation analysis and objektive Hermeneutik to show how language structure and social meaning are related. The concept concentrates on the local sensitivity of interactional structures. Empirical data are not taken to show the realization of contextfree general structures (e.g. turn taking conditional relevance). Contextsensitivity is analysed both as document and result of the selectivity, inherent in the participants’ activities in contributing to the local construction of social organization according to their dominant orientations as participants. For empirical analysis a four step modell (including maximal and minimal contrast) is proposed.
9. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Anmerkungen
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rezensionen
10. ProtoSociology: Volume > 3
Dieter Mans Praktische Argumentationstheorie
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