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Philosophical Inquiry

Volume 41, Issue 2/3, Spring/Summer 2017
In Honor of V. Karasmanis

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Displaying: 1-10 of 10 documents


1. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Theodore Scaltsas, Sharing a Property
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The Socratic discussion in the Hippias Major, 300-303, is not a passing comment on plural reference; it is a theory of plural subjecthood. It has escaped attention because it is a small part of a larger complex argument on the topic of which pleasures are fine. Socrates’s theory is further concealed by the fact that it is presented as an antithesis between Hippias and himself, whereas in fact, Hippias’s position becomes part of Socrates’s theory. I begin by examining Hippias’s position, and subsequently Socrates’ criticism of it. I then turn to Socrates’s further proposal, and the development of a theory of plural subjects that incorporates elements of Hippias’s position, and Socrates’s own. At the end, I address the question of the ontology of plural subjects. I argue that the key to sharing a property between subjects is not in the way that the plural terms refer to these subjects, or in any decomposition of the commonly owned property instance into parts distributed to these subjects. Rather, I follow Socrates in finding the common ownership of a property instance central to plural subjecthood, and develop an account of how this metaphysical function can be performed by the plural subjects without threatening their distinctness and plurality.
2. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Thomas Kjeller Johansen, The Seperation of the Soul from Body in Plato’s Phaedo
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The view that the soul can exist separately from the body is commonly associated with dualism. Since Plato’s Phaedo (Phd.) argues that the soul is immortal and survives the death of the body, there seems to be reason to call Plato, in that dialogue at least, a ‘dualist’. Yet, as we know, there are many kinds of dualism, so we have thereby not said very much. Let me therefore start with some distinctions. First of all, we can distinguish between two kinds of dualism which say that the soul is a different kind of substance from the body. On one version, call it ‘strong’ substance dualism, no properties of mind can also be properties of body. Mind is defined as a kind of thing that uniquely has a certain property or set of properties, say consciousness, just as body is defined by its unique properties, say spatial extension. This would seem to be Descartes’ view. On another version, call it ‘weak’ substance dualism, no essential or defining properties of mind are also properties of body. This leaves it open whether the mind and body may share some accidental or non-defining properties. Finally, there is an even weaker kind of dualism which we may call property dualism. According to this view, there are mental properties which are distinct from and irreducible to bodily properties.4 However, these mental properties may or not be properties of an underlying substance that also has bodily properties. In other words, the same thing may have both mental and bodily properties, so having mental properties is not enough to make something a different kind of substance.
3. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Lindsay Judson, Hypotheses in Plato’s Memo
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I investigate the epistemic status of the hypotheses and other premises used in Socrates’ ‘arguments from a hypothesis’ in the Meno, and of the conclusions drawn from them, and argue that, while they are taken by Socrates to fall short of knowledge, he takes them all to have a positive epistemic status, and is not committed to advancing them only tentatively.
4. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Christos Y. Panayides, Aristotle on Casual Determinism and Fatalism
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5. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Michail Peramatzis, METAPHYSICS A.7, 988b16-21: Aristotle’s Conclusion about his Predecessors on Causes
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The last six lines of Aristotle's Metaphysics A.7 draw some important conclusions about Aristotle's predecessors' (the Presocratics' and Plato's) grasp of the four types of cause. Aristotle argues that his account of his predecessors supports his conception of the four causes and his claim that in first philosophy, too, we should seek to understand our subject-matter on the basis of these four causes. I offer a detailed textual and philosophical interpretation of these lines, connect them with Aristotle's argument in Metaphysics A.1-6, and examine their metaphysical, epistemological, and methodological presuppositions.
6. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Christof Rapp, Tackling Aristotle’s Notion of the Will
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Although Aristotle’s name is regularly mentioned when it comes to the question of where the notion of the will historically derives from and although one of the most influential exponents of philosophical theories of the will, Thomas Aquinas, seems to think that he is just applying the Aristotelian theory, many historians of philosophy explicitly deny that Aristotle had a notion of the will. If we think that the notion of the will is among the notions that have been gradually developed in the history of philosophy, nothing is strange about saying that some philosophers prior to this development lacked this particular notion. However, Aristotle’s case is peculiar, because the same historians, who are reluctant to describe such a notion to Aristotle, admit that he played some role in the formation of the same notion. The line-up of more or less recent philosophers and scholars who are of the opinion that Aristotle had no notion of the will is a very remarkable one. This could almost be called a standard or default position, while the list of exponents of the opposed position, i.e. that Aristotle did have a notion or theory of the will, is much shorter.
7. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Gerhard Seel, The Puzzles of the ‘Master Argument’ and their Solutions
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8. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
David Charles, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Function Argument: Some Issues
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9. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Charles Kahn, Parmenides and the Origins of Greek Philosophy
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10. Philosophical Inquiry: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2/3
Vassilis Karasmanis, CV, 105
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