The Journal of Philosophy:
Normative Requirements and Contrary-to-Duty Obligations
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I argue that normative requirements (like “If you believe that it is raining, you ought to believe that it is precipitating”) should be interpreted as the conditional obligations of dyadic deontic logic. Semantically, normative requirements are conditionals understood as restrictors, the prevailing view of conditionals in linguistics. This means that Modus Ponens is invalid, even when the premises are known.