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Displaying: 1-5 of 5 documents


1. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 116 > Issue: 9
Ittay Nissan-Rozen The Value of Chance and the Satisfaction of Claims
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A new explanation for the fairness of lotteries is presented. The explanation draws on elements of John Broome's and Richard Bradley's accounts, but is distinct from both of them. I start with Broome's idea that the fairness of lotteries has something to do with satisfying claims in a way which is proportional to their strength. I present an intuitive explication of "the strength of a claim" and show that under this explication, the "personal good" for an individual gained by some proposition becoming true has a decreasing marginal contribution to the strength of the individual's claim for the proposition to be true. Then I use Bradley's account to deduce Broome's claim that fairness demands satisfying claims in a way which is proportional to their strength. Several implications of this account are discussed.
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2. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 116 > Issue: 9
J. T. M. Miller Natural Name Theory and Linguistic Kinds
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The natural name theory, recently discussed by Johnson (2018), is proposed as an explanation of pure quotation where the quoted term(s) refers to a linguistic object such as in the sentence ‘In the above, ‘bank’ is ambiguous’. After outlining the theory, I raise a problem for the natural name theory. I argue that positing a resemblance relation between the name and the linguistic object it names does not allow us to rule out cases where the natural name fails to resemble the linguistic object it names. I argue that to avoid this problem, we can combine the natural name theory with a type-realist metaphysics of language, and hold that the name is natural because the name is an instance of the kind that it names. I conclude by reflecting on the importance of the metaphysics of language for questions in the philosophy of language.
book reviews
3. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 116 > Issue: 9
Hille Paakkunainen Ralph Wedgwood: The Value of Rationality
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4. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 116 > Issue: 9
Kris McDaniel Karen Bennett: Making Things Up
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5. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 116 > Issue: 9
New Books
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