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1. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Tara Ceranic Salinas

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education research articles

2. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Anand N. Asthana

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This research looks at how mindfulness can contribute to business ethics education in MBA programmes. Mediation analysis was used to measure the influence of mindfulness on the participants’ performance in business ethics related courses and to quantify the influence of emotional intelligence which is a mediating variable. The effectiveness of mindfulness was evaluated using a Randomised Controlled Trial on participants of Executive MBA programmes. Half the participants were assigned to the intervention group and the other half placed on the waiting list for the next programme and used as the control group. Statistical analysis revealed that the increase in performance in business ethics related courses through mindfulness as also direct increase through emotional intelligence were significant. 40% of the enhancement of performance came through emotional intelligence while the remaining 60% came directly from mindfulness.
3. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Nikki Wingate, Dorin Micu, Claudio Schapsis

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There has been considerable debate on how to teach ethics within the marketing curriculum to accommodate the AACSB requirements requiring emphasis on ethical issues within the business curricula. Since introducing a separate course on marketing ethics has limited reach, we propose incorporating the ethical dimension through guest speeches and reflective learning in a mandatory Marketing course for all business majors. Through phenomenographic analysis of 121 student reflections, we report evidence supporting the effectiveness of this approach in significantly raising awareness of ethics in the marketing domain and in initiating the nurturing of ethical reasoning abilities in undergraduate business students early in their college careers. Students absorbed substantial amounts of knowledge at different levels and demonstrated significant cognitive processing within the revised Bloom’s taxonomy. Using this method to teach marketing ethics promotes awareness and application of ethical reasoning without compromising disciplinespecific instruction.

teaching articles

4. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Cathrine Borgen, Magne Supphellen

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Business ethics education aims to enable students to become conscious of their own values and develop the capacity to voice such values and make value-consistent decisions. However, a student’s personal values and the capacity to act on them tend to change after graduation. In this study, we discuss how moral learning is different in real work life compared to a business school setting, and we explain why graduates may downplay or abandon their values after graduation. We launch the concept of dynamic moral capacity (DMC), defined as the metacognitive routines for processing moral decision outcomes, motivated by humility goals. We suggest that future courses in business ethics develop DMC to avoid value drift and negative moral learning over time after graduation. Finally, we discuss how DMC can be included in the instructional framework of giving voice to values and thus increase its impact on moral learning after graduation.
5. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Jacqueline R. Jaeger

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Business ethics can be taught as a stand-alone course or be woven throughout a curriculum. There is a debate over whether to teach ethics in the form of theory or real-world connectedness or both. A moral-judgment gap exists, and many believe Business education should promote knowledge and skills that enable ethical intentions to be followed with ethical behaviors. This conceptual paper diagrams where the gap exists in Business Ethics education and theorizes how multi-modal, learning-centered ethics teaching can bridge this shortfall. Literature from the field of Education is drawn upon for pedagogies that promote learning and application. Case studies, constructed narratives, and simulations function as several key components useful for developing complex skills needed for applying ethical reasoning. Additional components and strategies that undergird and reinforce the case studies and other active learning components are laid out in pyramid form toward an overall best-practices approach to developing principled moral reasoning in Business Ethics.
6. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Hershey H. Friedman, Deborah S. Kleiner, James A. Lynch

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Many scholars believe that traditional courses in ethics (especially business ethics) have not been successful in making students ethical. The best that educators can hope is that these courses will help build ethical awareness. It is thus apparent that the apparatus used to teach ethics does not inspire the intellectual leap needed between the abstract awareness of ethical issues to the functional changes in behavior and decision-making. This paper posits that the creative arts, including literature, poetry, music, pictorial art, and film, may provide the tools to help bridge that gap. The creative arts can profoundly impact individuals and cause social change by gradually implanting values and changing beliefs. They can instill morals by using stories, sounds, and images and arouse the passion needed to change behaviors.
7. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Brian D. Till

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There is a long tradition of the value of using film as a pedagogical tool. Such use spans a variety of business disciplines including organizational behavior (Smith 2009), accounting (Bay & Felton 2012), business ethics (Fisher, Grant & Palmer 2015) and cultural competency (Greene, Barden, Richardson & Hall 2014). Presented here is a recently developed course, Business in Film, which engages students in deep reflection on business issues with an emphasis on ethics and values. The course is structured around a weekly film (mix of dramas and documentaries), 15 weeks, 15 films covering approximately 40 years. For each film, students prepare a 2-3 page reflection paper. Student feedback has been consistently positive, with comments along the themes of a greater appreciation of the intersection between business and the human experience, bringing to life ethical considerations, and a greater appreciation of the historical context of business events.
8. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Robert A. Giacalone, Mark D. Promislo, Vickie Coleman Gallagher

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Miscreants, in the form of deviants and dark personalities, impact organizations more than we realize. Most management instruction on ethics issues focuses on helping students to understand how to evaluate difficult situations, make ethical decisions, and engage in ethical actions. While this approach works well for the individual decision maker, it fails to help students learn how to anticipate and proactively prevent the unethical actions of others. Using ethical codes as a backdrop, “Thinking Like a Bad Guy” is a provocative classroom activity to elicit critical and creative thinking among business students. The goal of this exercise is to facilitate student learning so they can anticipate the behaviors of bad actors and alter organizational processes and procedures to mitigate the ability of others to violate organizational ethical standards.
9. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Murray Bryant, Throstur Olaf Sigurjonsson, Stefan Wendt

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The paper addresses a plea by accounting educators that ethics should be integrated into the accounting curriculum (Poje and Zaman Groff 2022). Further, accountants should teach ethics. Case learning is consistent with Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy of six levels of learning. The ethics literature supports using cases to teach ethics because cases allow each student to put themselves in the position of a decision-maker. Case selection should engage the learner emotionally. Therefore, current issues are preferable. With these goals—engaging the student as a learner, ensuring action learning, and meeting the learning taxonomy of Bloom, the paper provides educators with a suggested road map of case materials that can be employed in accounting courses across the program. Road maps are a means to demonstrate a holistic view of curriculum design and learning execution across specific accounting courses.
10. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Claire-France Picard, Cynthia Courtois

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Given the current business environment, business managers and accountants are more likely to encounter situations with ethical implications. Hence, business and accounting education should prioritize ethical skills such as critical thinking. However, significant pedagogical challenges await those who wish to venture down this path. Despite new educational tools in business and accounting ethics, we believe that new activities are needed to improve the acquisition of skills in professional ethics among students. Thus, we developed experiential simulations of ethical dilemmas inspired from what business managers and accountants typically encounter in their practice. More specifically, we created online simulations in the form of videos and interactive content. The purpose of these simulations is to help students experience the emotions that can be felt when faced with an ethical dilemma. They also provide a means of understanding the emotions of other characters and of thinking about how their actions affect others.
11. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Rikki Abzug

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To be effective ethical business leaders, students need experience identifying ethical dilemmas. Textbooks provide models and guidelines to categorize ethical challenges, yet students need practice applying these tools in the real world. The exercise described in this study is designed to do just that by helping students learn to identify ethical challenges in marketing. Using the marketing mix as a framework, this scavenger hunt-like exercise provides significant learning experiences by emphasizing teamwork, out of classroom learning, and meeting students where they are with technology. The exercise may be used at either an undergraduate or graduate level in business ethics classes. Learning themes tapped in this exercise can be realized in the on-site classroom or the virtual classroom. Further variations on these themes conclude the article.

case studies (with accompanying teaching notes)

12. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Anna Mueller, Jadranka Skorin-Kapov

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The case describes the developments of an ethics code observed in the local government of Suffolk County, New York, USA. In Suffolk County, there is now a dedicated Board of Ethics Agency (“Board”) within the local government to ensure that business operations and government operations run as ethically compliant as possible. This Board was created in 2012 in order to follow compliance with a law that established a replacement for the Ethics Commission (previously existing within Suffolk County) because this Ethics Commission had been involved in a serious controversy. The former County Executive, Steve Levy, was found guilty of compromising the “integrity of an ethics commission”. Suffolk County government prescribed various measures in order to ensure that the citizens of Suffolk County were protected from business ethical violations. The Board also preemptively created laws that discouraged businesses from acting unethically.
13. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Thomas P. Corbin Jr.

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A significant theory of corporate social responsibility is the Stakeholder Model. Within this model, entities make decisions that impact all stakeholders. Occasionally, the decision that is made ultimately impacts one stakeholder differently than another. Negative data by its very definition is seen as problematic for any organization as it pertains to its stakeholders. When confronted with the data or the potential of the data being negative to desired outcomes or directions of programs, an organization’s leadership may be faced with an ethical conundrum. Should the data be included and shown to all stakeholders? Or should the data be buried and avoided even to the point of engaging in questionable conduct in the management of paperwork and record keeping?
14. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Edward J. Schoen

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This case describes a recent iteration of the Ponzi scheme originated in 1920 by Charles Ponzi: creating a plausible investment, attracting investors, using the money from more recent investors to pay off earlier investors, and earning a substantial profit, estimated to be $15 million (worth $220 million today).1 While not as big as Bernie Madoff’s Ponzi scheme, as a result of which he was sentenced to 150 years in prison and ordered to pay restitution of $170 billion to his victims,2 the Federal district court in Miami was asked to order Par Funding’s cofounders, Joseph W. LaForte and his wife, Lisa McElhone, to pay $337 million to Par Funding investors and to declare they engaged in a Ponzi scheme in defrauding those investors.3 Ultimately the Federal district court in Miami ordered Par cofounders to pay “$219 million in ‘ill-gotten gains,’ fines and interest so the funds can be used to help reimburse 1,200 investors who were duped into buying the risky, unregistered securities used to finance the high-fee loan company.”4 How LaForte and McElhone executed their scheme is an intriguing story which provides helpful insight into ethical and U.S. securities law principles.
15. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 20
Mamoun Benmamoun

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McDonald’s, the renowned American fast-food giant, views the Middle East as an immensely promising market, yet one that presents formidable challenges. McDonald’s experienced the complexity of this region firsthand when its Middle East franchises became embroiled in a public dispute over the divisive and emotionally charged Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This case study explores McDonald’s political and ethical predicaments in the Middle East, examining the underlying causes of the backlash, dissecting the dynamics between franchisees and franchisors, and providing some potential remedies.

16. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 19
John Hooker

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education research articles

17. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 19
Michael Segon, Christopher Booth, Jeremy Pearce, Firew Beshah

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There have long been debates about the teaching of business ethics. Should business ethics be taught like functional business courses like marketing, law and strategy using behaviourist or teacher centred models in business courses? Or should adult learning methodologies adopt Socratic method with reflective practice as a means of promoting ethical self-awareness and enhancing personal development in meta-cognition and learning? This paper canvases literature pertaining to how business ethics and fields such as CSR should be taught. It outlines the methodological differences between pedagogical versus andragogic approaches and focuses on Socratic and reflective practice approaches. Extracts from student assessments including comments, feedback, and insights, from a number of MBA ethics and management subjects in different universities are presented. This provides evidence of the effectiveness of these approaches in enhancing participants’ abilities to engage in ethical reflection and decisions, validating the process as an appropriate and effective educational method.
18. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 19
Jay L. Caulfield, Felissa K. Lee

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Teaching the nuances of ethical decision making is particularly challenging in fully online, asynchronous courses where real-time discussion is not an option. Digital simulations, in the context of an integrative online ethics course, can offer applied learning and assessment experiences. However, scholarship on the impact of digital simulations for teaching ethical decision making is limited. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital simulation used as an assessment for ethical reasoning and complex decision making is effective in helping business students heighten their awareness of values in tension and discern ethical paths to resolution. We conduct an exploratory analysis of two ethics simulations used in teaching nine graduate business ethics classes offered in an asynchronous, online format. We discuss the results in terms of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics’ five-step ethical decision making framework and outline implications for teaching and future research on business ethics simulations.
19. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 19
Wasilah Abdullah, Dodik Siswantoro, Sri Nurhayati, Evony Silvino Violita

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The curricula of the undergraduate study programs on Zakat and Waqf management in Indonesia are still in their early stages of development. In this research, we aim to evaluate these curricula using a competency-based approach towards several study programs. Specifically, we compare the needs of Zakat and Waqf management with the curricula of undergraduate study programs in Indonesian universities. To fulfil our objective, we conduct several interviews with the program heads and practitioners. We also propose a particular curriculum for the study programs on Zakat and Waqf management. For this purpose, we apply a comparative research method and engage in qualitative research. Our results show that some competencies are not accommodated in the current curricula to meet the expectations of the Zakat and Waqf management. Therefore, we argue that it is important to change these curricula content to achieve the expected competencies.
20. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 19
Puneeta Goel, Rupali Misra, Komal Kapoor, Simmi Khurana

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There is a growing need to identify what really can converge classroom learning to the real-life practising of ethical principles. We examine if the effectiveness of ethics education can be improved through meditation-based mindfulness intervention. Our baseline experiment is a procedurally modified version of the anagram exercise (Ruedy and Schweitzer 2010) for measuring unethical behaviour. We introduce a brief meditation intervention to induce instant mindfulness. Our findings indicate substantive evidence confirming the positive effect of the state of mindfulness on ethical behaviour. Subjects in the meditation group engage in more low-level cheating compared to the control group who cheated more severely. Gender and academic grade do not influence ethical behaviour. Mindfulness fosters composure, mental poise, and a conducive environment for upholding ethical values, as indicated by a lower incidence of cheating in our study. We propose to promote a learning environment with mindfulness intervention in educational programmes.