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symposium on abortion and men
1. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Bertha Alvarez Manninen Pleading Men and Virtuous Women: Considering the Role of the Father in the Abortion Debate
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Far too often in our society, the input of a potential father is not deemed relevant in a woman’s abortion decision. Men, however, can suffer emotional strains due to the abortion of their potential child, and given this harm it seems that morality must make room for a potential father’s voice in the abortion decision. I will argue that a man cannot have the right to veto a woman’s decision to procure an abortion, yet there may be times where a woman may exercise her right to an abortion in a manner not indicative of a virtuous character. This is especially a danger in the face of a dissenting man who may suffer greatly if his potential child is abortedand thus I will delineate circumstances where a virtuous woman would concede to carrying a fetus to term in order to give a man the child he so desperately desires. In addition to using virtue ethics to make the argument, I will incorporate certain aspects of care ethics in order to further what may seem to some to be a rather contentious claim.
2. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Rebecca Hanrahan The Decision to Abort
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Is a woman ever morally obligated to forgo an abortion for the sake of the man who has impregnated her? In “Fathers and Fetuses,” George Harris contends that in some situations women are so obligated. Harris argues that a woman who lies to her partner about her desire to have children, becomes pregnant, and then decides to abort, will, if she acts on this decision, violate her partner’s autonomy and harm him in so far as she will harm his fetus. To avoid these wrongs, a woman must therefore carry this fetus to term. I argue that this conclusion depends on a principle for which Harris offers no argument, namely that the conditions under which a fetus is to be considered a man’s are the same conditions under which a fetus is to be considered a woman’s. Evaluating this principle andconsidering related cases leads to important conclusions about a parent’s relationship with the fetus. Specifically, I challenge the notion that we should ever consider a fetus ‘his’ or even ‘hers.’
3. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Daniel Holbrook All Embryos are Equal?: Issues in Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, IVF Implantation, Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and Therapeutic Cloning
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The focus here is the question of the moral status of viable human embryos for the first few days of their existence. More precisely, my focus is the human embryo from its conception, through its becoming a mass of undifferentiated cells, to its first differentiation when the initial stem cell mass appears. Naturally, this would occur in the first week of the embryo’s existence, whether in vitro (in a laboratory) or in vivo (in the uterine tubes or uterus). With cryogenics, the process can be frozen at any stage. In this essay, I identify four categories of human embryos and argue that differences between these categories support the view that embryos are not all equal in terms of their moral status, which, in turn, supports the legitimacy of some medical and research procedures that put embryos at risk.
4. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
James Stacey Taylor Autonomy, Responsibility, and Women’s Obligation to Resist Sexual Harrassment
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In a recent paper Carol Hay has argued for the conclusion that “a woman who has been sexually harassed has a moral obligation to confront her harasser.” I will argue in this paper that Hay’s arguments for her conclusion are unsound, for they rest on both a misconstrual of the nature of personal autonomy, and a misunderstanding of its relationship to moral responsibility. However, even though Hay’s own arguments do not support her conclusion that women have a duty to resist sexual harassment this conclusion can draw support from arguments that are independent of hers. Women, then, do indeed have a moral obligation to confront those who sexually harass them.
5. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Kalynne Hackney Pudner “Comment Me Back”: Expectations of Intimacy in the Culture of Blog
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Electronic communication raises challenges to our understanding of the ethics of interpersonal relationship. This paper examines one area of electronic communication, the practice of journal blogging, and its correlation to one form of interpersonal relationship, intimacy. Analyzing intimacy in terms of knowledge, esteem, and assimilation, the paper argues that while journal blogging would seem to enhance and facilitate these relational elements, the practice in fact and in principle undermines them.
6. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Brian Schrag Ethical Obligations of Museum Trustees and the Looting of Our Collective Heritage
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Museums have a long history and practice of trafficking in looted antiquities. An account of the moral mission of museums and the moral obligations of museum trustees is given. Based on that account, a moral critique of the actions of museums and their trustees is provided, addressing some of the rationales that museums and their trustees have offered for justifying this activity of trafficking. Some of the rationale examined involves arguments regarding collective responsibility. It is argued that the loss of provenance and provenience resulting from this practice is a particularly significant moral harm done to humanity as a whole. I argue that it is a mistake to categorize human remains and cultural artifacts as property and doing so is one source of the morally problematic activity.
7. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Todd R. Long Is it True that ‘Evolution Is a Theory, Not a Fact’?
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The teaching of evolutionary theory in U.S. public school science classes has been called into question via numerous school board mandated “evolution is a theory, not a fact” disclaimers that have appeared on science textbooks in recent years and which have been the subject of recent court cases. I evaluate the scientific reasonability of such disclaimers by engaging in conceptual analysis on the crucial terms in the key claim: “evolution is a theory, not a fact.” Assessing various interpretations of the key claim, I argue that, for any interpretation, it is either clearly false, or trivially true, or not even marginally reasonable as a rationale, of the sort pertaining to science, that justifies the use of the disclaimer or the advice it recommends to students. I conclude that such disclaimers haveno scientific merit. Finally, I offer brief remarks about what we may learn from the use of the disclaimers, as well as a word about the relevance of methodological naturalism to current disputes, and likely ones in the near future, over evolution.
8. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Jane Duran Canine Minds, Human Minds
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Sheldrake’s work on canine cognition is examined from more than one standpoint. His use of the terms “social field” and “morphic field” is delineated, and in addition recent work on ethology and cognition, done by Allen and Bekoff, is set out and contrasted with Sheldrake’s theorizing. The importance of the allusion to a number of comparatively unexamined concepts, including some borrowed from research on extrasensory perception, is analyzed and it is concluded that Sheldrake has yet to establish his case in acceptable terms.
9. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Lisa Eaker, Ari Stantas Tempering Tenacity: Peirce, Belief, Education, and Growth
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In this paper we shall draw on Peirce’s four methods of fixating belief to provide a template for examining classroom experience. Such a template provides a context for understanding the dynamics that emerge at the intersection of existing belief and new experience. We shall develop several examples of tenacity as an impediment to student growth, discuss traditional responses to the irrationally tenacious student (and teacher), develop Peirce’s four methods in the context of an educational setting, and draw conclusions from his work for educational theory. Our belief is not that tenacity inevitably works against the cultivation of critical awareness, but that this virtue needs to be tempered by a full purview of educational aims and their attending virtues.
book discussion
10. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Mike W. Martin Happiness, Virtue, and Truth in Cohen’s Logic-Based Therapy
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