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Displaying: 1-20 of 60 documents


1. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Joseph A. Petrick, Robert F. Scherer The Management Code of Ethics and Collegial Professionalism Expectations Among U.S. Academy of Management Members
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The authors point to the discrepancy between the rhetoric and the reality of collegial professionalism among U.S. management educators and the consequent erosion of professional, association social capital. They conducted a national survey of 260 Academy faculty members from all regions and determined that there is strong support for increasing educational efforts related to the Academy of Management Code of Ethical Conduct (AMCEC) for the general membership, and targeted to specific responsibilities for untenured faculty and ethical climate workshops for department chairpersons.
2. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Dawn Elm, Douglas R. May, Gary Weaver, Jim Weber Empirical Research In Business Ethics - a workshop session
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This document reports on the proposal, presentations and small group discussions regarding the Empirical Research in Business Ethics workshop held during the 2000 lABS conference. Those attending the workshop have agreed to create an email network, affectionately named: ERBE (like "Furby"). If you wish to be a part of this network, please email Jim Weber at [email protected] Thanks!
3. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Maureen L. Ambrose, Mark Seabright, Marshall Schminke Sabotage in the Workplace: The Role of Justice
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This study examines the relationship between injustice and sabotage behavior. Our hypotheses examine: 1) the frequency of justice as a cause of sabotage, 2) the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and sabotage motive (restoration of equity or retaliation), 3) the relationship between source of injustice and target of sabotage, and 4) the relationship between type of injustice and severity of sabotage behavior. The results supported the first three hypotheses. First, injustice was the most common cause of sabotage. Second, individuals were more likely to engage in retaliation when the source of injustice was interpersonal, while restoring equity was more common when the source of injustice was distributive. Third, the source of injustice and the target of sabotage were the same. We discuss the implication of these results for future research on sabotage and dysfunctional workplace behavior.
4. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Melissa S. Baucus, Caryn L. Beck-Dudley Designing Ethical Organizations
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Ethics researchers advise organizations to rely on rewards and punishments and other mechanisms to elicit ethical behavior. We discuss how this encourages employees to operate at Kohlberg's lowest levels of moral reasoning. We use AES Corporation as an example to illustrate our alternative recommendations for designing ethical organizations.
5. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Sandra L. Christensen, John Kohls Process and Outcome: What Is An Ethical Decision?
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This discussion paper asks whether researchers in business ethics should attempt to form a consensus around what it means to say a business decision is ethical. We believe that there is significant confusion in the published business ethics research as to what is being studied. The lack of consensus over what it means to say a business decision is ethical may have led to repetitive, ungeneralizable business ethics research. It may also, however, have been responsible for a shift from outcome to process thinking about business ethics.
6. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Sefa Hayibor Effects of the Use of the Availability Heuristic on Moral Behaviour
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This paper builds on the work of Jones (1991) concerning moral intensity and its links to ethical behaviour by identifying the use of the availability heuristic described by Tversky and Kahneman (1973) as a determinant of the level of moral intensity that characterizes an issue. Theoretical links between availability and perceptions of moral intensity are delineated, and propositions concerning the relationship and its effects on the probability of ethical behaviour are articulated.
7. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Kathryn S. Rogers, Daniel R. Gilbert, Jr Entrepreneurship and Ethics
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We challenge the view of entrepreneurs as 'soloists.' Extending stakeholder theory, we offer several ethical questions about entrepreneurship. These involve an ethics of social mobility and an ethics of human connection. We conclude that we are undecided about whether entrepreneurship is distinctively different from good business practice.
8. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Harry J. Van Buren III The New Workplace Contract and Obligations of Fairness
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Much has been written in recent years about the changing nature of the employment relationship in the United States (Arthur and Rousseau, 1998; Cavanaugh and Noe, 1999; Leana and Van Buren, 1999; The New York Times Special Report. 1996). Arthur and Rousseau (1996) have developed the boundaryless career concept, defined as a career that unfolds over time in multiple employment settings. Cohany, Hipple, Nardone, Polivka, and Stewart (1998) present evidence that the use of contingent workforce arrangements—defined as "conditional and transitory employment arrangements as initiated by a need for labor, usually because a company has an increased demand for a particular service or a product or technology, at a particular place, at a particular time" (Freedman, 1985: 35)—is increasing among U.S. organizations. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that the nature of the employment relationship in the United States is changing dramatically.
9. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Archie B. Carroll, Kim Davenport, Doug Grisaffe, Kim Graham Lee Appraising the Business Value of Corporate Citizenship: What Does the Literature Say?
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The overall purpose of this paper is to present the values that have been achieved as a result of corporate citizenship initiatives. This will be accomplished by a literature review of thirty-six (36) articles spanning the past two decades (1980-1999). Corporate citizenship will be defined broadly, as encompassing the literatures of corporate philanthropy, cause-related marketing, and corporate social performance. The goal will be to present in summary form the specific values/benefits to the business bottom-line identified through articles, books and studies that reflect philosophical beliefs (expert opinion), anecdotal experiences, and empirical studies. These benefits include: improved employee relationships; improved customer relationships; improved business performance; and enhanced marketing efforts.
10. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Barrie E. Litzky, Dona M. Decaeolis Corporate Social Performance, Person-Organization Fit, Organizational Commitment And Firm Performance: Exploring Relationships
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This research proposes a model, which examines the relationship between an organization's corporate social performance (CSP), its employees and its overall performance. Exploration includes (1) whether the employees view an organization's top management team (TMT) as ultimately responsible for the corporate social performance of that organization; (2) whether the relationship between an organization's CSP and the organizational commitment of its employees is moderated by person-organization fit; and finally, (3) whether the organizational commitment of the employees impacts a firm's overall performance. Propositions, which hope to guide future research in this area, are included.
11. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Douglas A. Schuler, Michele J. Daley Information and Social Decisions: Reworking the CSP-CFP Model
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We propose an integrated model of the corporate social performance (CSP)-corporate financial performance (CFP) relationship. The model differs from existing models in two major ways. First the model explicitly recognizes that factors both internal and external to the firm affect the relationship between CSP and CFP. Second, the model recognizes that on the external factor side there exist two critical informational junctures and two decisional platforms that create link between CSP and CFP. Our model suggests that the ambiguous empirical results obtained in previous studies of the CSP-CFP relationship could be due to weaknesses In the existing theoretical model.
12. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Steven L. Wartick The Problem of Inter-Rater Group Differences in the Fortune "Most Admired Companies" Survey: An Empirical Look Using Financial Performance Measures
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This study takes a closer conceptual and empirical look at the issue of homogeneity among the groups of "judges" whose assessments make up the Fortune "Most Admired Companies" survey ratings and rankings. The study uses financial performance as a vehicle for examining differences between these respondent groups, and the empirical analysis shows that although many respondent groups do rely on companies' financial performances to develop their reputational rankings (and, therefore, their underlying ratings), approximately half of the groups appear to be relying on some other factor. The study therefore calls into question whether unadjusted Fortune "Most Admired Companies" ratings and rankings across industries provide valid and useful comparisons.
13. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Yiran (Michelle) Zhou Corporate Community Participation in the Creation of Social Capital
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This paper attempts to analyze corporate community participation in light of the social capital literature. When the firm engages in a cooperative relationship with its community, convergence between the individual values is necessary to achieve the collective goal. Corporate community participation leads to increased social capital at the community level, benefiting both the firm and the community in different aspects. Implications relating to stakeholder theory and business citizenship are considered.
14. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
John R. Danley Risk v. Risk: DDT and Malaria
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Virtually every attempt at risk reduction creates countervailing risks, shifting either the nature of the risk and/or the population exposed. This paper will explore and clarify some of the issues of safety, risk, and countervailing risk, by examining the contentious dispute which recently erupted between those supporting international efforts to ban a number of dreaded chemicals, including, DDT, and those supporting the limited use of DDT (spraying inside homes). The paper defends the limited use of DDT.
15. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Frances E. Bowen Does Size Matter?: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Organisation Size and Environmental Responsiveness
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Researchers roudnely include organisation size in empirical models of environmental responsiveness. However, recent empirical studies have not uniformly supported this practice. This paper explores the theoretical reasons why there may be positive relationship between organisation size and environmental responsiveness, and conducts a meta-analytic review of recent studies to test whether "size matters". The results indicate a significant difference in the overall positive relationship across organisational levels of analysis and the type of environmental responsiveness measure used. The analysis will be of interest to both researchers and policymakers who in their quest for the determinants of environmental responsiveness need to know : Does Size Matter?
16. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Mark Cordano Assessing the Impact of Relevant Toxic Release Information
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This study examined how business students (n = 276) responded to toxic release information. The results were surprising demonstrating that toxic release volumes did not arouse concerns about pollution problems or interests in environmental citizenship or collective action behaviors. A disposition model using an attitudes measure presented a better explanation of intended proenvironmental behaviors. The causes for these results and future research are discussed.
17. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Virve Haaja, Juha Nasi, Grant T. Savage Environmentally Friendly Oil Tankers?: An Analysis of the Launch of a Ship-Specific Environmental Management System
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This manuscript describes and analyzes the launching and maintenance of an environmental management system for a fleet of oil tankers. The Ship Management Division of Alpha Corporation was the first in the worid to be awarded an environment certificate for its fleet. Hill and Jones' stakeholder-agency theory is applied to analyze the relationship between the Ship Management Division and its environmental officers. This analysis shows that the speed, extent, and intensity with which the environmental management system was implemented depended on the agent on each ship, and the results have been highly uneven. Most of these problems are attributable, moreover, to the principal rather than the agent.
18. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Lise Langeland Developing a Discourse for a Sustainable Corporation: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Unleashing the Sustainable Potential
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This paper describes a discourse for a sustamable corporation both with regards to the contents of such a corporation and its cultivation. Moving towards the sustainable corporation necessitates a mental shift from pursuing incremental changes such as minor environmental improvements or legislative compliance. Likewise, it necessitates a shift from viewing sustainability as an expense to viewing sustainability as an investment.
19. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Joel Reichart An Environmental Civil Rights Value Acceptable to All World Views: A Communitarian Critique and Extension
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The environmental justice movement seeks an end to inequal distribution of environmental risks to minority communities. Troy Hartley argues that Kantian deontology, supplemented by a Rawlsian argument, provides a universally acceptable concept of equal environmental benefit. I will argue for a communitarian conception of environmental justice that allows more local flexibility in the application of procedural rules and in economic decision making.
20. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
David Saiia Field research in sustainability: The Maquipucuna project
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This paper discusses a formulation of the sustainabihty concept as applied to a specific setting. This framework, inspired by the work of Bächtold and Berwert (1998), explores sustainability relationsbips and was initially presented at the Paris lABS meeting by Michalik, Saiia and Schmidt (1999). The author fiuther explores the implications for stakeholder identification and strategic management by applying this framework to a field situation at the Maquipucuna Cloud-forest reserve in Ecuador. When issues of sustainabihty are raised the concept of eco-efficiency or doing more with less quickly comes to mind (McDonough & Braungart, 1998). This paper suggests that simply pursuing eco-efficiency does not go far enough to address the underlying problems in modem corporate society and ultimately will not lead us to a sustainable future. A handicraft commercialization project in Ecuador is being pursued to assist communities surrounding the Maquipucuna Cloud-forest reserve in creating altemative sources of income with the objective of sustainabihty for the entire Maquipucuna ecosystem (including the human subsystem).