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articles
1. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mark Sultana Bridging the Gulf between Wittgenstein's Works: a Matter of Showing
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In this paper, I take three snapshots of Wittgenstein's philosophical work in order to jot a few notes on the issue of the continuity in his philosophy. I useWittgenstein's distinction between what can be 'said' and what can only be 'shown' in order to highlight Wittgenstein's continual insistence that our basic relation with reality is seamless. I propose that Wittgenstein holds, throughout his philosophical career, that our thinking does not stop short of the world. In brief, I suggest that Wittgenstein would note that our natural history is largely what the mediaevals would call second nature.
2. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tim Thornton An Aesthetic Grounding for the Role of Concepts in Experience in Kant, Wittgenstein and McDowell
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The paper begins by asking, in the context of McDowell's Mind and World, what guides empirical judgement. It then critically examines David Bell's accountof the role of aesthetic judgement, or experience, in Kant and Wittgenstein, in shedding light on empirical judgement. Bell's suggestion that a Wittgensteinian account of aesthetic experience can guide the application of empirical concepts is criticised: neither the discussion of aesthetic judgement nor aesthetic experience helps underpin empirical judgement. But attention to the parallel between Wittgenstein's discussion of understanding rules and the question of how empirical concepts can be applied to particulars suggests how to dissolve the felt need for an answer. This in turn helps shed light on McDowell's conceptualist account of experience.
3. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Giorgio Lando Tractarian Ontology: Mereology or Set Theory?
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I analyze the relations of constituency or „being in" that connect different ontological items in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. A state of affairs is constituted by atoms, atoms are in a state of affairs. Atoms are also in an atomic fact. Moreover, the world is the totality of facts, thus it is in some sense made of facts. Many other kinds of Tractarian notions - such as molecular facts, logical space, reality - seem to be involved in constituency relations. How should these relations be conceived? And how is it possible to formalize them in a convincing way? I draw a comparison between two ways of conceiving and formalizing these relations: through sets and through mereological sums. The comparison shows that the conceptual machinery of set theory is apter to conceive and formalize Tractarian constituency notions than the mereological one.
4. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Robert Janusz Ontology in Astronomy
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In the domain of astronomy the object oriented paradigm of informatics needs to constmct an ontology to be able to reason about concepts and to constructqueries in a computerized knowledge system. The article presents approaches to ontology in philosophy, the natural sciences and informatics and shows their limits and reciprocity.
5. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tadeusz Gadacz The Problem of Evil in Józef Tischner's Philosophy
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The problem of evil is a metaphysical problem bound up with the conditions of human existence. The radical evil of fascism and communism, according to Jozef Tischner, opens up the possibility that we live in the time of a modem Manicliaeism, understood as having two faces: nihilism and pessimism. The possibility of thinking of such a modem form of Manichaeism necessarily calls for a new inquiry into the question of evil. For Tischner, evil, like good, is not anobject, but something in which man participates, and for this reason it cannot be objectified and defined. One can only ask how it appears.
6. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Anna-Karin Andersson The Positive and Negative Rights of Pre-Natal Organisms and Infants/Children in Virtue of Their Potentiality for Autonomous Agency
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In this paper, a rights-based argument for the impermissibility of abortion, infanticide and neglect of some pre-natal organisms and infants/children is advanced. I argue, in opposition to most rights-ethicists, that the potentiality for autonomous agency gives individuals negative rights. I also examine the conjecture that potential autonomous agents have positive rights in virtue of their vulnerability. According to this suggestion, once an individual obtains actual autonomous agency, he or she has merely negative rights. Possible solutions to conflicts of rights between parents and their offspring are investigated. Finally, I discuss a lexical order between positive and negative rights, which may solve conflicts between the rights of potential autonomous agents and actual autonomous agents.
7. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Julia Tanner Intrinsic Value and the Argument from Regress
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Proponents of the argument from regress maintain that the existence of Instrumental Value is sufficient to establish the existence of Intrinsic Value. It isargued that the chain of instrumentally valuable things has to end somewhere. Namely with intrinsic value. In this paper, I shall argue something a little more modest than this. I do not want to argue that the regress argument proves that there is intrinsic value but rather that it proves that the idea of intrinsic value is a necessary part of our thinking about moral value.
8. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Roman Darowski Philosophy of the Jesuits in Lithuania since the 16th until the 18th Century
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In the philosophy of the Jesuits of this period one can distinguish philosophy connected with teaching, i.e. taught at schools led by the Jesuits, and Civicphilosophy, not connected directly with teaching. This was mainly social, economic, and political philosophy, especially philosophy of the state, law and the like.
9. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Piotr Aszyk Reception of Some Aspects of the Hippocratic Medical Ethics in Antiquity
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The Hellenic medical ideas have found appreciation among people over centuries. Though the initial concept remained the same, methods or ways to achievedesired aims have changed. Since Hippocrates, new generations of physicians have worked hard to find more powerful types of therapies to relieve their patients and make treatment less burdensome. The struggle of medicine is very specific and requires, apart from practical skills, a clear personal commitment to help people wisely. From the Early Antiquity, both medicine and medical ethics go together. Wherever Hippocratic medicine is practiced, an appropriate moral pattern accompanies it because the Hellenic doctor offered purely clinical data and his art should not be separated from anthropology, ethics and religion.
10. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Luke Fischer Derrida and Husserl on Time
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In this essay I take issue with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's phenomenology of intemal time-consciousness in Speech and Phenomena. Derrida's critique of Husserl's phenomenology of time also forms the basis for what Derrida regards to be an undermining of phenomenological philosophy itself. After first disagreeing with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's understanding of time I proceed to object to his „undermining" of phenomenology. I attempt to illustrate that his critique of phenomenology is unconvincing.
11. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mauro Murzi A Defence of Pluralism in the Debate about Natural Kinds: Case Study from the Classification of Celestial Objects
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I reconsider the monism/pluralism debate about natural kinds. Monism claims that there is a privileged division of reality into natural kinds, while pluralismstates that there are many ways of classifying objects according to different purposes. I compare three different monistic accounts of natural kinds with the pluralism advocated by promiscuous realism. The analysis of some examples of the classification of celestial objects suggest that there are indeed different legitimate ways of classifying things according to different purposes; contrary to monism, the boundaries between kinds are not fixed. These results show that promiscuous realism is a better account of natural kind.
12. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Piotr Sikora Putnamian Constraints on Pluralistic Theology of Religions
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There are many arguments that so-called pluralistic theologies of religions face difficulties in being sufficiently pluralistic. In order to meet such an objection, a pluralist offers different solutions. I argue that the range of plausible possibilities for a pluralist is strongly constrained by philosophical arguments which one can develop out of the philosophy of Hilary Putnam. In the first part of this paper, I sketch out three important strands of the Putnamian thought I consider worth defending. Given such presuppositions, I formulate two constraints on pluralistic theology of religions. In the last section of my paper, I briefly point out which ofthe particular standpoints, often labelled as „pluralistic theology of religions", have problems with meeting formulated constraints, and which of the „pluralists" seem to be in accordance with them.
13. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Jarosław Paszyński Weisheit als Wissenschaft über Gott nach Thomas von Aquin
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Thomas geht davon aus, dass die Weisheit, gemäß der aristotehschen Definition, in der Erkenntnis der ersten Ursachen besteht. Nach Thomas ist die Theologie diese Weisheit, weil sie die Erkenntnis (Wissenschaft) über Gott als erste Ursache des ganzen Universums ist und zugleich die Erkenntnis über allesin Bezug auf Gott als ihren Urspmng und Ziel. Angenommen, dass für Thomas die Theologie die Weisheit ist, kann die logische Struktur seines Hauptwerkes Summa theologica anders wie gewöhnlich interpretiert werden und zwar, nicht nach dem neoplatonischen Schema: exitus - reditus, sondern als Realisation des Programms der Theologie als Weisheit.
14. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Fedor Stanjevskiy Une anthropologie à la base d'une pensée religieuse: l'unité de Vhomme dans la theologie de Maxime le Confesseur
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Maximus the Confessor in his „Ambigua" opposes himself in a decisive way to the Origenist vision of man and of his relation to God, a vision extremelywide-spread in his time. He creates his own anthropology which in its turn serves as a foundation of his theology. Man becomes a complete and integrated being and obtains his full realisation only provided that he is united with God and is a corporeal being related to the world in which he lives. Man, World and God are the terms of a dynamic relation, in which each of the first terms finds its unity. Man's unity, as well as that of the world, is realised in God, towards Whom both tend and move. The article is an attempt to retrace this movement of man, together with the world, to God, the movement crowned in unity with Him, a kind of unity that does not take away man's identity.
15. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Michal Chabada Les aspects philosophiques de la théologie selon Jean Duns Scot: De la science à la pratique
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Theologians of the 14th C. agreed that theology is scientific knowledge based upon the truths of revelation. But the very introduction of Aristotle's and aristotelian philosophy into theology turned out to be problematic. Above all, it was questionable to integrate theology - as a science based on revelation - within the aristotelian framework of sciences. This problem is difficult for Scotus in two ways. On the one hand, he uses the concepts elaborated in greek philosophy, but, onthe other hand, his franciscan spirituality compels him towards the opposite solution. Scotus only has the Aristotle's division of theoretical and practical sciences at his disposal to determine the character of theology, and he chooses to classify theology as practical science. Scotus is pouring „new wine" of Christian revelation into „old wineskins" of greek philosophy, the fact causing noticeable problems when interpreting many Scotus' ideas and views.
book reviews and notices
16. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Dariusz Łukasiewicz Peter Van Inwagen, The Problem of Evil by Dariusz Łukasiewicz
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17. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Anna Julia Siwiec, Władysław Stróżewski Marek K. Siwiec, Los, zło, tajemnica: ku twórczym źródlom poezji Aleksandra Wata I Czeslawa Milosza [Fate, evil, mystery. Toward the Creative Sources of Aleksander Wat's and Czeslaw Milosz's Poetry] by Władysław Stróżewski
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18. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Aleksandra Derra Piotr Sikora, Slowa i zbawienie, Dyskurs religijny w perspektywie filozofii Hilarego Putnama [Words and Salvation. Religious Discourse in the Perspective of Hilary Putnam's Philosophy] by Aleksandra Derra
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articles
19. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
John Vattanky Proof for the Existence of God in Classical Indian Philosophy
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Both in the East and in the West, there is, apart from the religious approach to God, also a purely rational one. Although in India philosophical speculationon God was mostly inextricably bound to religion, there have also been purely rational developments in Indian Theodicy. This is the case above all in theNyāyavaiśeṣika system, where we find a purely rational and logical approach to the question of the existence and nature of God. It is the specific contribution of the Nyāyavaiśeṣika system to have developed a purely logical and rational argument for the existence of God. My purpose here is to take this proof in its developed form, as it is found in Gaşgeśa, and investigate its philosophical and logical implications.
20. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Miłosz Pawłowski Traversing the Infinite and Proving the Existence of God
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The aim of this paper is to present a proof to the conclusion that is impossible to traverse an infinite series (in particular, an infinite series of past moments).This may also show (given additional assumptions) that the series of past moments cannot be infinite. In the first section I formulate five theses concemingtraversing, successive addition and successive subtraction and I present the idea of the argument: if it were possible to traverse an infinite past, it should be in principle possible to go back, which is, however, impossible. The main body of the paper is concemed with working out a simple mathematical representation of some structural features of processes like traversing and successive addition. I also make a crucial distinction between completion of a process at a particular time and its timeless „completion" in infinite time. In section V, I present the formal proof and defend it against a possible objection of question-begging. Finally, I suggest that my argument can contribute to constructing arguments for God's existence, and to solving the problem of the asymmetry of our attitudes towards death and prenatal non-existence.