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1. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Vorwort der Herausgeber
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2. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Beiträgerverzeichnis
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der bildbegriff in der entwicklung des fichteschen denkens
3. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Diogo Ferrer Die Entwicklung der Wissenschaftslehre und die Entstehung der Theorie des Bildes in der ersten Fassung von 1804
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Four points are discussed in this paper. 1: A long lasting issue in the WL. This point tries to show that the WL in its different versions contains a demonstration of incompleteness as a necessary condition of human consciousness and forms of knowledge. The necessary form of the system of human experience is conditioned by the impossibility of a purely conceptual explanation of human knowing. 2.1: From the Grundlage to the Nova methodo. This point explains the main errors in the exposition of the Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre, which led to the conception of the WL Nova methodo. 2.2: From the Nova methodo to the Exposition of 1801/1802. The main changes in the exposition of the WL 1801/1802 are discussed in the light of the new philosophical challenges from 1799 onwards. 2.3: The emergence of the Image theory in the first WL of 1804 is addressed in the last point. In accordance with the point 1 above, it is finally shown that Fichte’s Theory of image is both a transformed critical and transcendental philosophy, and an answer to questions raised in the preceding development of the WL.
4. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Valentin Pluder Du sollst Dir ein Bild von mir machen, um es zu überwinden: Zur Vermittlung von Absolutem Wissen und gewöhnlichem Wissen am Ende der WL 1804-II
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The Wissenschaftslehre 1804-ii does not end with absolute knowledge in the 25th lecture, because this absolute knowledge is as sealed off from the common knowledge as the Absolute itself in the 15th lecture was. As matters stand in the 25th lecture the Wissenschaftslehre can neither meet its own claim to unify all knowledge in one system nor can the genesis of the absolute knowledge, which had to begin with common knowledge, be understood by means of the Wissenschaftslehre itself. The problem in linking absolute knowledge and common knowledge is that, on the one hand, absolute knowledge is hermetically closed. Therefore, nothing and especially not common knowledge can derive or result from it. On the other hand, absolute knowledge is not supposed to depend on anything but the Absolute itself. Therefore, it cannot be understood adequately as a condition for common knowledge. Fichte’s solution to this problem is to differentiate between the genesis of absolute knowledge and absolute knowledge itself. Common knowledge is necessary only for the genesis of absolute knowledge. However, the validity of the common knowledge depends on the pursuit of the absolute knowledge.
5. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Ives Radrizzani De la gestion des fantômes du nihilisme. La réponse de la Destination de l’homme
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The accusation of Nihilism, which Jacobi expressed in his Letter to Fichte, marks a caesura in Fichte’s production. Reputed to be the paradigmatical representantive of a philosophical tradition letting any reality dissolve in a simple game of shadows, Fichte sees himself constrained to clarify the status of the image in his system. This paper aims to examine the strategy to which he has recourse in the Destination of Man, in order to find an answer to the attack.
6. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Christian Klotz Leben – Bild – Besonnenheit: Die Überwindung der idealistischen Erklärungsart in Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre 1810
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Also in the latest versions of the Science of Knowledge Fichte considers explanation of the structure of consciousness a central task of philosophy. In his late explanation of consciousness, the concepts of life and image (or schema) play a central role – two concepts that in Fichte’s account are inseparable and mutually elucidate each other. By interpreting the 1810 Science of Knowledge and Fichte’s introductory lecture The facts of Consciousness from 1810/11, this article aims to show that the pair of concepts “life” and ‘image’ occur on two different theoretical levels in Fichte’s late philosophy: first, in the formulation of a view of consciousness that Fichte characterizes as ‘idealist’ and that he considers to be in continuity with Kant’s transcendental philosophy; and, second, in the exposition of the conception of consciousness as an image of a non-constructible absolute that goes beyond the idealist explanation without, however, denying its validity within its own sphere. The second step, which occupies the major part of the 1810 Science of Knowledge, can be understood as Fichte’s late reply to Jacobi’s critique of the Science of Knowledge as a ‘nihilism’. Its final step is the introduction of the concept of ‘sober- mindedness’, in the sense of a self-interpretation of moral consciousness which goes beyond any constructible content. The concluding part of the article interprets and discusses the conception of sober-mindedness as involving Fichte’s final reply to Jacobi’s criticism.
7. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Manuel Jimenez-Redondo Sein, Existenz und Bild in der Philosophie des späten Fichte
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The late Fichte transforms transcendental philosophy into ontology, without transcendental philosophy ceasing to be transcendental philosophy. The center of his philosophy is no longer the transcendental self, but rather concepts like existence, light, image, from which the transcendental self can be derived. Against dogmatism, for which being is to be considered as an absolute fact, Fichte tries to show that being can be deduced and explained from the light, and that means: from transcendental freedom. Whatever exists is made from the substance of appearance, from the substance of visibility and light, from the material of the image. But the appearance, the image, the light, can only derive their creative power from the fact that they are (in absolute terms) the existence of the Absolute. And precisely at this point, under the idea that only the Absolute is, Fichte has repeatedly to cope with the question of the relation between the being-character of this substance and the being-character of the Absolute. Against his reiterated attempts to proceed this way, the difference between being and existence can not so easily be traced back to the concept of an absolute Being, in whose inner essence lies the fact that nothingness becomes itself an ‘apparent something’ (the world), against the background of which, and by which, the Absolute cannot be, and cannot be understood, except as absolute.
8. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Marco Ivaldo Bilden als transzendentales Prinzip nach der Wissenschaftslehre
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In my contribution i would like to consider a thesis of Reinhard Lauth, according to which Fichte’s Doctrine of Science must be properly characterized as theory of the Bilden (formation), as “Bildenslehre”. In his late Berlin lectures Fichte understands Wissen (knowledge), in its actuality, as “Bild” (image). Knowledge is image and identifies itself as an image. The image as such shows a reflective and relational structure. The image presents an essential self-reflexivity and does not exist in isolation, but is a relationship to something else which Fichte designates as being, life, light, one, God. The basic idea of Fichte is that we have access to reality (to being) only through the image and in it, within a transcendental unity of being and thinking that must be conceived not as a fact (Tatsache), but as an act (Tathandlung). The term and concept Bilden (formation) expresses well the dynamic and active nature characteristic of the image. i try to explain this on the basis of certain passages of the Doctrine of Science of 1804 (second exposition).
9. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Joao Geraldo Martins da Cunha The Concept of the Image in the Berlin Lectures on Transcendental Logic
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In the present paper, i propose, first, to present some aspects of what we may call a type of "phenomenology" of the image contained in the Berlin lectures on transcendental logic – notably, in the second of these courses in Berlin. Second, i would like to return to the problem of the relationship between logic and philosophy, starting from these indications with regard to the "image", and, if possible, outline some parallel with certain theses on the same subject from the Jena years. Finally, in what i consider a novelty concerning these lessons, i would like to conclude my exposition by raising the question of the foundational character of Fichte’s project.
fichtes bildtheoretisches denken und seine vorlaufer
10. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Mario Jorge de Carvalho Bilder-wahrnehmen und Bild-sein: Altgriechische „Vorläufer“ der Idee des Bildseins
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Images are usually understood as something perceived: as something presented to us and different from us. But since Antiquity the concept has also been given a different meaning: it has been used to describe our own being, and indeed so much so that it also stands for our essential nature: we are ourselves an image (we are ourselves but an image); and being an image (being but an image) is what is what really defines us. The experience of being oneself an image (as opposed to just perceiving something else as an image) – or, as one might also say, this basic understanding of oneself as being just an image – plays an important role inter alia in Pre-Platonic thought, in the corpus platonicum, in the Christian idea of the imago Dei (of the notitia Dei as capacitas Dei) and, not least, in Fichte’s late philosophy.This paper focuses on two ancient Greek forerunners of some aspects of Fichte’s understanding of image, namely pre-platonic and platonic views on our own being-just-an-image.