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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ilya Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
Collective Agent as a Matter of Epistemological Analysis
Коллективный субъект как предмет эпистемологического анализа

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In the article, there proposed an original idea of the collective agent of cognition (CAC) that overcomes the controversy of individualism and collectivism. In the history of philosophy a clear conceptualization of has been offered by I. Kant (the notion of transcendental agent and scheme of imagination). This was interpretedby, among others, G.W.F. Hegel ("Zeitgeist") and K. Marx (the concept of the total and joint labor). A critical analysis of analytic social epistemology (A. Goldman, J. Lackey) helps clarify the tacit presuppositions of the "individual-collective" dualism. In reducing the CAC to the cognizing individual, Lackey fails to interpret adequately the phenomenon of distributed knowledge widely spread in modern science and social practice (F. Hayek, H. Collins). As an alternative to reductionism, the article proposes a typological approach to CAC. It aims to understand its structure as consisting of four main levels (transcendental, imbedded, contract and distributed agent of cognition), each of which being illustrated by a paradigm example. In conclusion, the duality of collective and individual agents of cognition is unmasked as based on the mixture of everyday and philosophical discourses.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Language and the Picture of the World
Язык и картина мира

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3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander Antonovski А.Ю. Антоновский
Is There the World without an Observer?
Существует ли мир без наблюдателя?

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4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ekaterina V. Vostrikova Е.В. Вострикова
Are There Any Objects of the World without the Language?
Существуют ли объекты мира без языка?

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5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Petr Kusliy П.С. Куслий
Events and Times in the Ontology of Natural Language
События и временные интервалы в онтологии естественного языка

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6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ilya Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
We Live in the World of Self-Evident Illusions
Мы живем в мире самоочевидных иллюзи

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7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Reply to Critics
Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Steve Fuller Стив Фуллер
Customised Science as a Reflection of 'Protscience'
Клиентская наука как выражение научного плюрализма

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This article is concerned with two concepts. The first is a coinage of the author, 'Protscience', a contracted form of 'Protestant science', made in reference to the 16th—17th century Protestant Reformation, when the members of Western Christendom took their religion into their hands, specifically by reading the Bible for themselves and interpreting its relevance fortheir lives.Today we witness a similar tendency with regard to the dominant epistemic authority, science, whose 'reformation' often portrayed as 'democratisation'. However, a more exact understanding draws on the article's second key concept, the distinction drawn in marketing between 'customer' and 'consumer'. The former purchases to sell (i.e. a retailer), whereas the latter purchases to use. Many of the so-called 'anti-science' movements of recent times can be explained as a rise in 'science customisation', whereby people who have acquainted themselves with the latest science adopt a discretionary attitude towards what they will and will not believe of what they have learned. Keywords: anticipatory governance, democracy, New Age, placebo effect, Protestant Reformation, Protscience, science customisation.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexandra A. Argamakova А.А. Аргамакова
Applied Socio-Humanitarian Knowledge, Social Technologies and Engineering
Прикладное социогуманитарное знание, социальные технологии и инженерия

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The article includes the description of factors, which determinated the formation of modern social and human sciences, as well as their applied sections. During the history, as many concrete cases illustrate, social and humanitarian knowledge has been always guided by the needs of practice. In the late 19th and early 20th century the practical interest to the improvement of humans and society has resulted in the conceptions of social technology and social engineering, the demand for which grows in contemporary technoscience and technoculture.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Garris S. Rogonyan Г.С. Рогонян
Asymmetry of the Radical Interpretation
Асимметрия радикальной интерпретации

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This paper considers the problem of direct knowledge about oneself as a prerequisite of a self-consciousness. The explanation of the asymmetry between first and third person that is characteristic for such a knowledge could shed the light on the nature of self-consciousness as a natural phenomenon. The key to the problem is the asymmetry Donald Davidson proposed as the main feature of the process of interpretation. However, this solution is often either not fully appreciated or misunderstood as a kind of linguistic asymmetry. The paper argues that this asymmetry has a causal nature, and this is the first reason for irreducibility of our mentalist vocabulary and thereby for the necessary use of such concepts as self-consciousness.