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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Alexander Antonovski A. Ю. Антоновский
Communication as an Epistemic Problem
Коммуникация как эпистемическая проблема

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The author analyses the problem of the communication from the epistemological point of view, noting that the interest to the theme is obviously determined by the enormous ambiguity and by the disciplinary vagueness of the communication's notion itself. It is argued that it is the philosophical conceptualization of the communication that allows in a certain sense to «save» philosophy itself. The author notes that the philosophical studies of communication as if return the relevance to the classical philosophical problems: to the (communicative) sphere, (communicative) time, (social) causality, (collective) subject and object, filling them with the meaningful characteristics and testing their concepts by the experience of the functioning of real society and communication. He concludes that the epistemological content of the concept of communication is comes together with several aspects of human cognition. The first aspect has to do with the dimensions for defining the adequacy for determination of the statement made by the Other (i.e. the other participant), given that the content of the Other's consciousness is unavailable. The second aspect is related to the principle of a double purpose of any communication: on the one hand, integration and mutual understanding and, on the other, informational description of the subject of the message. The third aspect is that communication is based on the most important epistemological distinction between knowledge and ignorance, i.e. on the predominance of any information to one participant of the communication and of its uncertainty to the other participant, and that such a situation actually conditions the formation of communication systems, as well as of a wide variety of forms of sociality. The author also addresses the problem of whether contemporary media make communication at all possible since they decrease the impact that the secrecy of the Other's consciousness has on communication by triggering a communicative act.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Vadim Mezhuev B. М. Межуев
History in the Mirror of Philosophy
История в зеркале философии

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Philosophy of history is analyzed here from the point of its epistemological and ontological meaning. The author considers that the ontological point of view makes it possible to conceptualize the history as the unity of its all times - Past, Present and Future. The connection between these three times based on their relation to the concept of Eternity which has been symbolically formed within the mythological, religious and utopian Weltanschauung. The necessity of these relations transforms philosophy of history into a special kind of ontological historical knowledge. The study of history from the prospect of unity is only possible within the historical interpretation of Future as an epoch of bridging the gap between Time and Eternity. Author calls this philosophical concept the Time of Freedom.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
В.С. Кржевов В.С. Кржевов
On Problems and Specifics of Philosophy of History
О проблемах и специфике философии истории

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The article analyzes the philosophical solutions to the problem of relationships between philosophy of history and historical science. The author recognizes the existence of the long-term methodological crisis. He also considers that any attempt of establishing the special subject area for the philosophy of history is totally irrelevant and inconsistent with the contemporary methodological foundations of socialsciences. The following elaboration of this problem should be based on the principle of the diversified unity of philosophy, sociology and historical science.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Ю.А. Никифоров Ю.А. Никифоров
On Time, Eternity and History
О времени, о вечности и об истории

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The author analyses some problems discussed in the article of Vadim Mezhuev. He discusses the ways in which historians deal with their own scientific problems in the light of philosophical problems of sciences. According to Yu. Nikiforov, a philosopher can always talk about the future which is yet to come; a historian sees the future through the present of the processes which she describes. The author argues that a reconstruction of the past is always based on the knowledge of the present.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Yuri Semyonov Ю.И. Семенов
History as a Real Process: Historical Science and Philosophy of History
История как реальный процесс, историческая наука (историология) и философия истории (историософия

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In this article author considers the problem of epistemology of historical knowledge. Author doesn't accept the neo-kantianism theory. He makes an attempt to differ the two forms of unitarization of scientific knowledge — theoretization and the principle of holism and, hence, the two forms of the theoretical consideration of history. The author insists that the Marxists approach seems to be the most relevant from this point of view. Thus, he defends the thesis that the idealistic concepts are much vulnerable comparing with the materialistic approaches.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Vladimir Porus В.Н. Порус
Who needs an optimistic philosophy of history?
Кому нужна «оптимистическая» философия истории

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All speculations on «the meaning of history» are argued to exceed the epistemological capacities of historical science. Nevertheless, the author argues, such speculations are significant for a philosophy which treats historical development as a real phenomenon. For many philosophies of this sort, freedom of a human-being is the main goal of the historical process. The author notes that such «historical optimism» is in conflict historical practice. And he argues that it can be dangerous if transformed into a slogan.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Vadim Mezhuev В.М. Межуев
Reply to critics
Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Rom Harré Ром Харре
The Social Ingredients in All Ways of Acquiring Reliable Knowledge
Социальные основания получения надежного знания

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A distinction should be drawn between natural sciences and cultural studies such as psychology and history. A social philosophy of science must be based on bringing them into a fruitful relationship. What relations are possible? There is the role of natural science concepts and methods in cultural studies and the role of concepts and methods of cultural studies in natural science, determining standards of good work and particularly the choice oif domains of research with respect to human welfare. Cultural studies of natural science as an institution emphasises the importance of standards of excellence and of the role of rights and dutiesin the life of scientific institutions.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Olga Stoliarova О.Е. Столярова
MiIlieu, Embodiment, and Cultural Studies of Science: Comment on Rom Harre’s the Social Ingredients in All Ways of Acquiring Reliable Knowledge
Проблема телесного воплощения и исследование науки в контексте cultural studies

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The article discusses the concept of milieu in its connection with a problem of embodiment as it is today posed in the cultural studies of science. It is pointed out that if we take the embodied milieu as a precondition and result of our theoretical and practical activities, then it challenges the traditional sense of the word «social and, accordingly, the basic purposes of a social philosophy of science.
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Diana Gasparyan Д.Э. Гаспарян
Epistemological Constructivism and the Problem of Global Observer
Эпистемологический конструктивизм и проблема глобального наблюдателя

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Discussions related to the detection of objective reality, the truth and lie are still a heated topic in the domain of philosophical epistemology. While certain philosophical contexts and theories suggest that the notion "reality as an independent category" should not be engaged, instead, interpretations, including reciprocal, should be used, others hold it that philosophical discussion cannot continue without reference to the said notion. Different philosophers and scolars approach this problem from different angles. When discussing these topics, philosophers often resort to certain thought experiments, engaging an important concept, which can broadly be identified as "the global observer." This concept has something in common with such concepts as the God's Eye, Omniscient Interpreter, Ultimate Observer (quantum physics), Agent of Logical omniscience (game theories), Ideal Observer (ethics and meta-ethics), God (analytic theology). Despite the abundance of works on the topic and scrupulosity of arguments, there still remain many uncertainties in such discussions, mostly related to a great number of logical paradoxes, associated with the problem. Therefore, in view of the current situation, the focus of the research paper is on the deliberation of consistency of the notion "global observer" from the standpoint of logic and philosophy. The results of the analysis of the issue at stake are expected to clarify the notion and to enrich current discussions on the topic. I examine certain difficulties in the philosophical assumptions concerning one of the philosophical concepts, which could be collectively named as the "global observer." The article below explores the notion of the global observer as the guarantor of the determinability and configuration of events in the world. There is explained the meaning of this concept and attempt to show that, despite variations in the wording, it is used in many philosophical contexts related to epistemology. The core issue of the present research paper is the analysis of the consistency of the notion "global observer" from the standpoint of logic and philosophy. The paper discusses why application of this notion in some contexts poses challenges and appears to be paradoxical.
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Elina Lasitscaya Э.В. Ласицкая
Cognition and its in Evolutionary Epistemology
Познание и его субъект в эволюционной эпистемологии

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The author investigates the content of the notion of subject from the evolutionary-epistemological point of view. She claims that evolutionary epistemology does not clarify this problem by itself and argues that this state of affairs raises a number of problems such as absolutization of adaptationism, biologism in knowledge, lack of a clear demarcation between animal cognition and human cognitive activity. It is argued that a man is the only subject of cognition in evolutionary epistemology. Inasmuch as person constructs and enriches the environment he becomes a pressure factor by himself. This claim is argued to counter the thesis of adaptation. So adaptationist interpretation of the evolution of human cognitive activity is insufficient. The phenomenon of environmental change through the development of cognitive abilities by the person is represented in society, communication and culture. Cognition is determined by anticipating the result of purpose. In this connection, the constructive activity of the cognitive person confronted with the limitations of her own cognitive capabilities and environmental restricting factors. Thus, the evolution of man is considered as self-development, which is carried out through the creative overcoming external and internal constraints through the constructive activity of the agent of cognition.
language and mind
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Petr Kusly П.С. Куслий
Philosophical Problems of the Binding Theory: Binding and Coreference in the Semantics of Reflexive Pronouns
Философские проблемы структурной лингвистики

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The paper discusses one of the central problems of contemporary formal semantics — counterexamples to the predictions of the theory of binding (due to N. Chomsky). In particular, the author addresses cases of the so-called coreferential readings of reflexive pronouns which are standardly predicted to receive only the bound reading. The author examines theories of T. Reinhart and I. Heim and suggests an extension ofthe latter theory in order to enable it to account for the aforementioned readings of reflexive pronouns.
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Dimitris Kilakos Димитрис Килакос
How Could Vygotsky Inform an Approach to Scientific Representations?
Применение идей Выготского в исследовании проблемы научных представлений

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In the quest for a new social turn in philosophy of science, exploring the prospects of a Vygotskian perspective could be of significant interest, especially due to Vugotsky ’s emphasis on the role of culture and socialisation in the development of cognitive functions. However, a philosophical reassessment of Vygotsky's ideas in general has yet to be done.As a step towards this direction, I attempt to elaborate an approach on scientific representations by drawing inspirations from Vygotsky. Specifically, I work upon Vygotsky's understanding on the nature and function of concepts, mediation and zone of proximal development.I maintain that scientific representations mediate scientific cognition in a tool-like fashion (Like Vygotsky's signs). Scientific representations are consciously acquired through deliberate inquiry in a specific context, where it turns to be part of a whole system, reflecting the social practices related to scientific inquiry, just scientific concepts do in Vygotsky's understanding. They surrogate the real processes or effects understudy, by conveying some of the features of the represented systems. Vygotsky's solution to the problem of the ontological status of concepts points to an analogous understanding for abstract models, which should be regarded neither as fictions nor as abstract objects.I elucidate these views by using the examples of the double-helix model of DNA structure and of the development of our understanding of the photoelectric effect.
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Sergei Kovalyov, Andrei Rodin С.П. Ковалев
Axiomatic Method in Contemporary Science and Technology: Pragmatic Aspects
Аксиоматический метод в современной науке и технике

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In 1900 David Hilbert announced his famous list of then-opened mathematical problems; the problem number 6 in this list is axiomatization of physical theories. Since then a lot of systematic efforts have been invested into solving this problem. However the results of these efforts turned to be less successful than the early enthusiasts of axiomatic method expected. The existing axiomatizations of physical and biological theories provide a valuable logical analysis of these theories but they do not constitute anything like their standard presentation,which can be used for transmission, evaluation, and justification of physical and biological knowledge. This state of theart in the axiomatization of physics is strong evidence that the standard notion of axiomatic theory stemming from Hilbert and Tarski is not appropriate for thet ask. However in the recent years in mathematics there emerged a new axiomatic approach best represented by the Homotopy Type theory (HoTT). We argue that the constructive axiomatic architecture used in HoTT has better chances to be successfully applied in physics as well as in computer science and engineering.
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Lyudmila Markova Л.А. Маркова
On the Way to Transhumanism
На подступах к трансгуманизму

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Social Epistemology today is argued to allow an adequate formulation of questions for exploring the issues in the process of scientific cognition. A formulation of such questions is claimed to have been impossible in the framework of classical thinking. One such issue is claimed to be the theme of transhumanism which moved from the realm of science fiction to the sphere of rational discussion. The author argues that today philosophers and scientists are discussing the question whether material objects, both natural and man-made, can think. Obviously, the author continues, we cannot assume that the thinking of man-made devices is human. Material carriers of programs also differ radically by the type of their materiality from the human body and brain. But, the man is also changing in his communication with the machine, adapting to it. The process of thinking itself is argued to have become different, especially given that an increasing number of organs of the human body are now replaced with artificial ones. The author states that today one of the central problems of philosophy is what would result from such humanization of machines and mechanization of humans. This problem is argued to be open.
interdisciplinary studies
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Vasily Zuev В.В. Зуев
Methodological Programs of Modern Biological Taxonomy
Методологические программы современной биологической таксономии и перспективы ее развития

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The difficulties of the biological taxonomy development are argued to have been historically associated with two main problems: 1) the problem of searching for essential features which was unachievable within the framework of empiric taxonomy andcould be solved as a part of the mature theory; 2) the problem of developing of a model of the biological object the remedies of which were developed only in the XX century. The author argues that both problems are associated with the development of classificatory and system ontology and the relevant methodologies. The classificatory methodology from its inception is argued to have developed as a means of classification of biological diversity; furthermore it is claimed to have been assumed that the features representing classes possessed ontological nature that is they actually represent individual objects. The author concludes that taking into account the empiric nature of taxonomy that assumption turned to be false. In the modern taxonomy along with the classical approach a classificatory-system approach was developed. Fundamentally, it is a transition from the classical approach to the modern one which is held to imply the development of a system model of the study subject.
archive
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
William Whewell Уильям Хьюэлл
The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Founded upon their History
Философия индуктивных наук, опирающаяся на их историю

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book reviews
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Igor Dzhokhadze И.Д. Джохадзе
Back to princeton: rereading rorty
Рорти в Принстоне: повторение пройденного

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The fifth volume of Richard Rorty's "Philosophical papers" published by Cambridge University Press, consists of the works which American philosopher wrote at the very dawn of his career in 1960s and early 1970s. In these essays Rorty addresses issues of transcendental argumentation, the internalism/externalism controversy, mind-body dualism and psychophysical monism, semantic truth, reference and justification. Supplemented by Daniel Dennett's Foreword, the book gives an excellent idea of Rorty's «analytical» writings and his evolution from eliminative materialism to pragmatism.
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Galina Sorina Г.В. Сорина
Interdisciplinary Studies
Трансдициплинарные штудии

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The article provides analysis of the findings of the interdisciplinary studies presented in the book "Interdisciplinarity in Philosophy and Science: Approaches, Issues, Prospects" (edited by V. Bazhanov and R. Scholtz. M. : Navigator, 2015) published in 2015. In the paper, the collective monograph is described as the first Russian book on the interdisciplinarity issues which covers such abroad range of subjects and has been written with the participation of the leading foreign specialists in the field of interdisciplinarity. Specifics of philosophical issues of interdisciplinarity and issues of interdisciplinarity in science are analysed in the article following the authors ofthe book. The author ofthe article points out significance of education and educational environments the formation of the idea of interdisciplinarity itself. It is concluded in the paper that learning about the issues of interdisciplinarity might be usefulfor a broad range of scholars from a great variety of fields of scientific knowledge.