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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Ilya Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
Trading zones as a subject-matter of social philosophy of science
Зоны обмена как предмет социальной философии науки

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In the modern knowledge society there is a high need for highly qualified scientists and engineers. At the same time the conditions of the consumer society reduce the prestige of intellectual activity, which becomes one of many ordinary goods. There is also a sharp contradiction between the growing specialization and differentiation in the sciences, on the one hand, and everyday consciousness, on the other, which falls behind the scientific advances. One of the urgent tasks of scientific policy, therefore, is to eliminate dangerous gaps between science as a social institution and the modern society. This policy must be directed towards the integration of science into a cultural society and ensuring personnel reproduction in science by creating new tools (social and human technologies) – special types of transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary trading zones. Currently, this type of social technology is not developed in Russia; underdeveloped are the scientific methods of their design as well. It is expected that scientific and techno-social filling of the gaps will take place by developing methods of research, modeling and design of trading zones on the basis of critical social epistemology (S. Fuller, I. Kasavin), history and sociology of science (P. Galison, H. Collins).
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Lada Shipovalova Л.В. Шиповалова
Should we conceive science historically?
Стоит ли науку мыслить исторически?

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In the article I describe the difficulties of contemporary historical epistemology which are associated with its disciplinary uncertainty and the ambiguity in the understanding of its meaning for the historical interpretation of science. It’s argued that some of modes of such interpretation lead researchers to the dangerous relativism. The author emphasizes the removal of the opposition between external and internal history of science, the inclusion “non-humans” to the objectness of the historical thinking, going beyond presentism as the way of describing of the history of science, as well as the approval of variability of the fundamental concepts of scientific activity. The thesis is that, in spite of this, we should conceive science historically, readily meeting all relativistic consequences of this thinking. Also we should understand relativism as the necessary reason of the epistemologist studies. In conclusion, I discuss the importance of this historical thinking about science in the epistemic, disciplinary and socio-political contexts.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Natalia Kuznetsova Н.И. Кузнецова
Historical epistemology in search of symbolical status
Историческая эпистемология в поисках символического статуса

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The author argues that the analysis of the matter and problems of historical epistemology is ineffective when it begins with the ordering of the key notions. N.I. Kuznetsova claims that it’s important to show the necessity of the descriptive point of view in considering the historico-scientific problems. Description of the previous epochs requires the researcher’s refusal to assess them from the modern prospects. The author considers the absence of this refusal as one of the biggest failures of the contemporary historiography of science and epistemology.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Taras Varkhotov Т.А. Вархотов
Contra relativism: historical epistemology in search of universals
Против релятивизма

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In the article the author presents an argument against the conver­gence of historical epistemology with relativism and defend the in­dependence of epistemic objects’ cognitive value from their socio-cultural genesis. The author make an assumption of the possibility of realization of historical epistemology as a project of search for the epistemological universals.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Igor Dmitriev И.С. Дмитриев
«It is logic, but not thinking» (N. Bohr)
«Это логика, а не мышление» (Н. Бор).

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The author suggests some comments about the article by L. Shipovalova. The point is made for a failure of a linear approach to the historical description. The author claims that the history of thought cannot be linearized. He argues that attempts at such linearization constitute the classical illusion of the task of a historical narrrative: to tell the story of what allegedly really happened.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Ekaterina Shashlova Е.И. Шашлова
On the meaning of historical epistemology for contemporary philosophy of science
О значении исторической эпистемологии для современной философии науки

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The article analyzes historical epistemology and the notion of historical a priori. French historical epistemology appears in a narrow sense as a tradition within French philosophy. I will consider the tradition of historical epistemology not as a relativistic approach towards history and philosophy of science, but as a strategy against the standard view on normativity and legitimation of knowledge.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Olga Stoliarova О.Е. Столярова
Should we conceive science outside the history?
Стоит ли мыслить науку вне истории?

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This paper analyzes the two modes of historical approach to science which L.V. Shipovalova puts as “unproblematic” and “ruthless”. First, it is shown that epistemology inevitably becomes historical when it addresses itself to science, because a historical approach meets the demands of the subject (science). Second, it is shown that the relationship between “unproblematic” and “ruthless” historicisms can be considered as the relationship between “identity” and “difference” as this relationship is presented in Émile Meyerson’s doctrine of ontological history of science.
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Lada Shipovalova Л.В. Шиповалова
On the possibility of “negotiations” in historical epistemology
О возможности «переговоров» в исторической эпистемологии

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This paper describes the possible compatibility of positions of the discussion participants on the current project of historical epistemology. The tension between descriptive and normative elements of this project is determined as one of the most important issue. I make an assumption of a philosophical nature of historical epistemology that does not detract from, but supports the historicity of thinking science.
epistemology and cognition
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Walter Schweidler В. Швайдлер
On the sociocultural body of knowledge: Aspects of phenomenological approach to the social philosophy of science
О социокультурном теле знания

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The author defends the anti-representationalist claim that the formation of the proper names (and as a consequence – scientific terms or notions) cannot happen through certain ostensive pointing at some objects given here and now (like in B. Russell’s theory) or through perceptions which are generalized inductively or by means of Kantian apperception or Anschauung. In order to answer the question about the concepts formation we have to take into account the historical and socio-cultural background of the genesis of proper names which form the foundation and boundary of all classifications including the scientific ones. The author claims that there is an important difference between a personal belief or propositional knowledge and some implicit or background knowledge of the language community in its historical development. The first one could be evaluated on its truth / falseness. The second one however – being the foundation for the first one – cannot be evaluated in this manner. It simply is as it is.
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Alexander Antonovski А.Ю. Антоновский
Social philosophy of science as the guardian of the “incarnation of truth in the world”
Социальная философия науки

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In his paper the author establishes some arguments against the thesis of professor Walter Schweidler. The later defends the anti-representationalist claim that not every kind of knowledge is to evaluate on its truth and falsehood. The author maintains the opposite thesis that the all knowledge including the one about social premises of any kind of science may be evaluated (although not eventually proved) on their truth or falseness.
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Anatoliy Rakitov А.И. Ракитов
Rationality and rehabilitation of relativism
Рациональность и реабилитация релятивизма

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The problem of the rationality of knowledge and subject-practical activities were widely discussed in the second half of XX and early XXI century. Special attention was attracted to scientific rationality. Supporters of the concept of post-non-classical science consider that it captures not only the status of objective reality and subjective practice, but some cultural, historical and value characteristics of human activity and its reflection in epistemology and philosophy of science. The author aims to challenge this position. He agrees with the researchers who are skeptical concerning methodological, social, subjective, material and epistemological significance of the concept of “rationality”, and rationalism itself as its basis. The concept of epistemological square suggests structurally clear, formalized scheme of science and scientific research and shows that concepts of relativity and relativism provide as a rule more adequate basis for structures and processes of scientific research. Some examples from natural and social sciences show that relativity inherent to all complex cognitive systems. Relativism in a broad philosophical sense is a concept that emphasizes that knowledge as ordinary as scientific contains a significant element of tradition and conventionality. This creates greater scope for freedom of choice of scientific hypotheses, models of explanation and prediction. Relativism does not automatically lead to agnosticism and subjectivism. On the contrary it opens a greater space for freedom of intellectual creativity. So the qualification of the philosophical and epistemological relativism as a danger for science is inadequate. The author believes that a comprehensive analysis of the epistemic potential of relativism could become an important issue for discussion by experts in the field of epistemology and philosophy of science.
language and mind
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Vitaliy Dolgorukov В.В. Долгоруков
Epistemic presuppositions and taxonomy of assertives
Эпистемические пресуппозиции и классификация ассертивов

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The paper proposes an epistemic taxonomy of assertives based on a concept of epistemic presuppositions. Epistemic presuppositions are a special kind of pragmatic presuppositions, which describe the structure of hearer’s and speaker’s meta-reasoning. The epistemic taxonomy of assertives is based on the operator of strong common belief (sCB). It is argued that the properties of a strong common belief operator (positive and negative introspection, non-factivity) are relevant for the analysis of pragmatics presuppositions. Also strong common belief operator is used for the explication of gricean epistemic construction: “the Speaker thinks (and would expect the hearer to think that the speaker thinks…”. The assertives’ taxonomy for an utterance φ consists of the following basic types: “1. Non-Literal Utterances” (sCBS,H¬φ) and “2. Literal Utterances” (¬sCBS,H¬φ). Non-Literal Utterances is divided into two groups: “1.1. Conventional Literal Utterances“ (there is a convention such that means ψ in a context c.) and “1.2. Non- Conventional Literal Utterances“ (there no such convention). There are two types of Literal Utterances “2.1. Semantically Trivial Utterances (sCBS,Hφ)” and “2.2. Semantically Non-Trivial Utterances (¬sCBS,Hφ)”. Semantically Trivial Utterances is divided into two parts: “2.1.1. Conventional Semantically Trivial Utterances” (there is a convention such that means ψ in a context c) and “2.1.2. Non-conventional Semantically Trivial Utterances” (there no such convention). Semantically Non-Trivial Utterances is divided into two parts: “2.2.1. Insincere Utterances” BS¬φ and “2.2.2. Sincere Utterances ¬BS¬φ. There are two types of Sincere Utterances “2.2.2.1. Credible Utterances” (BSφ) and “2.2.2.2. Non-credible Utterances”).
vista
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Elena Mamchur Е.А. Мамчур
Unobservable entities in modern physics: social constructs or real objects?
Ненаблюдаемые сущности современной физики

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The paper deals with the problem of ontological status of unobservable entities of modern physics. Author considers the question whether they are real objects or social constructs? The first point is being supported by constructive realists; the second one is backed by those who stand by a very influential strategy of the so-called social constructionism. Realists assume that intermediate vector bosons (as well as Higgs boson recently discovered by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider) do exist in reality before being predicted by the theory of electroweak interaction. They are discovered, not created. In the discourse of social constructionism, the mentioned micro-objects, on the contrary, are being created in the process of a specially set up experiments. The author confirms truthfulness of the realistic approach by analyzing the well-known in modern history of physics experiment on discovering the intermediate vector bosons.
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Irina Aseeva И.А. Асеева
Axiological priorities of the VI technological mode
Аксиологические приоритеты VI технологического уклада

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During the last 250 years the change of technological modes has been occurring not only in the upgrading of the industrial complex and the integration of innovative technologies, but also through the radical transformations in the environment of human existence. The specifics of the VI technological mode in the comparison with the previous modes is the inner transformation of the human being. The author of this paper discusses the following questions: What are the axiological priorities that should be accepted by scientists and society to avoid catastrophic and irreversible consequences and risks of the scientific and technological development? Could professional socio-humanitarian expertise consider the potential dangers of using the new convergent NBIC-technologies? What role the public and humanitarian-scholars can play in the analysis of scientific achievement and monitoring research?
case-studies – science studies
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Grigory Antipov Г.А. Антипов
On the “Invisible Hand” by Adam Smith and the formation of the scientific picture of the social world
О «невидимой руке» Адама Смита и формировании научной картины социального мира

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The expression “the invisible hand of the market” (from the Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations”) sometimes acquires in modern ecomomical and everyday journalism the most unexpected overtones, like “why “the invisible hand of the market» totally disregard writer”? In the area of the scientific economic thinking “the «invisible hand” is interpreted as the objective market mechanism which coordinates the decisions of buyers and sellers. The attempts to analyze the epistemological status of “the invisible hand” are quite rare, especially in the modality of the formation of the Economics as a science. Meanwhile, as it is shown in the article, there is reason to see here the first fundamental step to the origination of the scientific research program of the economic science in the strict sense. The author assumes that phenomena like “the invisible hand of the market” is comparable to what Thomas Kuhn designates as “the metaphysical parts of paradigms”, i. e. basic ontological models, which define peculiar scientific vision of the reality under research. The main difficulty for the scientific rationality in the attempts of generating scientific knowledge about society, was to represent the corresponding processes of human activity in the form of objective reality, which is required by the basic ideological attitude of the science as such.
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Lora Ryskeldieva, Yulia Korotchenko Л.Т. Рыскельдиева
Textual approach in social philosophy
Текстовый подход в социальной философии

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This article discusses the specifics of social and philosophic approach to studying society in the context of two basic tendencies in modern social researches: interdisciplinary studies and commitment to search of meaning/sense. Both tendencies point to a special subject of this research – text. The authors believe that social philosophy has a particular characteristic that should be preserved and an introduction of the concept “public text” will help the preservation. Publicity of social text is determined as its special status in the society consisting in creation of socially meaningful senses. Among public texts the authors single out publicistic texts that are of special format and possess expressed socially transforming potential. This article proposes valuative model as a method of analytically clear and reflexive reading of such text. It is being established that sociocultural research of modern days will have broader perspective in regards to specificity and thingness if it is involved with studying (analysis and interpretation) of namely texts. Social and philosophic research itself becomes text as well – mainly author’s and intentionally published, that preserves special features of philosophical text in general. The concept of “social text” loses virtual status at that, philologism as a regular consequence of modern interdisciplinary studies is being overcome and the subject of social and philosophical reflection is obtained from the area of text creation. The authors note two main research options of social philosophy – generalization of work results from experts in cultural studies, social studies, political studies, etc. (critical and methodological); determination and comprehension of socially important intents (reflexive and textological).
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Victor Kupriyanov, Lada Shipovalova В.А. Куприянов
The crisis of representations: How is a successful outcome possible? The case of scientometrics
Кризис репрезентации

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The article deals with the problem of representation and considers such points as its necessity in science, contemporary crisis of representation and its possible outcome. The paper also scrutinizes the case of representation of scientific researches by means of scientometrics methods. The need of the representations in science is determined by three points: absence of the direct access to the fact, certainty of the fact which exceeds the certainty of the immediate experience and consolidation of the scientific community by any stable representation. The sense of crisis concerns the confusion of the representation with the reality and the fact that it hides the reality as well. The scientific research is necessarily represented by means of scientometrics methods, which is connected with the unintelligibility of the idea of the scientific researches to the outsiders. The idea of quantitatively estimated scientific outcome replaces the essential, qualitative intentions and impedes to achieve them. This fact evokes the criti­cism against scientometrics methods from the side of scientific community. The authors suggest the ways to overcome this crisis. One of the steps against it implies the attention to the genesis of such type of representation. This means keeping in mind the fact that scientometrics appeared on the basis of the scientific com­munity’s necessity to search for the information about already existing researches and to disseminate the ideas.
interdisciplinary studies
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Mikhail Kogalovsky, Ivan Nevolin, Sergei Parinov М.Р. Когаловский
Scholarly communication development as a modernization basis for the research performance assessment and evaluation
Развитие научных коммуникаций как условие модернизации оценки научной результативности

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The information technology development significantly influences on the scholarly communication system by means of transformation. Such processes open new opportunities for improvements of the research performance assessment. The first part of the article characterizes the approaches and methods of research performance assessment, adopted in Russia and some European countries to evaluate individual scientists and research teams. The common features and shortcomings are under discussion, while the most notable among them are the following: inability to track the citation motivation, inability to address to the competitiveness of the every individual scientist and the progress of current research. However, we conclude that the modern research information systems with new approaches to research performance indicators calculation and its visualization become a platform for the scholarly communication improvement. They help in preventing research duplication, finding opportunities for research collaboration, etc. The role of such systems, therefore, is dual – first, they provide current monitoring of research activities and, second, suggest transformation path. This transformation, in turn, provides opportunities for improvement of the research performance assessment. The article’s second section analyzes new trends and prospects of the research environment development and scientific communication. We demonstrate how these trends can contribute to the creation of the fundamentally new tools for the research performance assessment. The third section discusses the Russian research information system Socionet, as a particular example of new technological environment for scholarly communication. The transformative impact and the potential of this system, as well as the created new opportunities for the research performance assessment – are all under discussion.
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Nikolai Rudenko Н.И. Руденко
“The crisis of representation” in the social sciences in the middle of 1980-1990s: critics of the process of knowledge achievement and sociological narratives
«Кризис репрезентации» в социальных науках на рубеже 1980–1990-х гг.

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“The Crisis of representation” – a discussion that was hold from the middle of 1980 to the middle of 1990 s in social sciences, when the legitimation of the big social theories was questioned as well as the deconstruction of scientific texts and the process of knowing, based on positivistic principles, were done. In this article the author offers the analysis of intellectual context of the development of social sciences (sociology and anthropology) in the crisis. The latter are analyzed in three aspects. Firstly, the crisis concerned the process of knowing, based on principle of the unity of methods and concepts: some authors argued the influential role of language in the construction of reality. Other authors referred to implicit moral and political dimensions while the third provided deconstruction of the scholar figure and the notion of reality. In a similar vein, the crisis was articulated in the critics of scientific texts where implicit meanings and rhetorical devices were found. To the author’s view, the need of reconstruction of the crisis of representation can be explained by the want of more reflexive approach to the practices of social sciences today.
archive
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Natalia Kuznetsova Н.И. Кузнецова
“Wonderland” of theoretical epistemology
«Зазеркалье» теоретической эпистемологии

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Author argues that the social relay theory by Mikhail Rozov is the result of the deep analysis of the number of empirical facts and of the facts from the history of science. “Relay” is the core notion of this theory that was used by Quine for the clarification of the connection between the word and denotatum in the “Word and Object”. The author enumerates the other philosophers who have explained this connection the same way. It’s claimed that the theory of social relay is close to Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory in the problem definition.