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1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Sofia Pirozhkova С.В. Пирожкова
The faces of prevision: from universal knowledge to foresight forecasting
Многоликое предвидение

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Author aims to give an integral representation of different semantic fields, forming the polysemantic concept “prevision". It is proved that such representation would eliminate the ambiguity in understanding what we're dealing with in a particular instance of usage and related practices. Three semantic fields are identified through analyzing of the evolution of meaning of concept “prevision" in philosophical texts, modern prognostic practices and studies of mechanisms of cognition. The first is summing up in definition of prevision as a constructive activity with regard to the future, the second - in definition of prevision as passing experience (passing from actual experience to possible one), the third designated as formed by existential issues. It is shown that the conception of prevision as a passing experience, fixed the fundamental mechanisms of cognition and adaptation, is the foundation for other two semantic units. At the same time constructive and existential meanings of prevision couldn't be reduced to this foundation.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Stanislav Gavrilenko С.М. Гавриленко
Historical epistemology: zone of uncertainty and space for theoretical imagination
Историческая эпистемология

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This article attempts to define a historical epistemology not as separate place in disciplinary space, but as rather specific area, which unstable configuration and “stuff" are determined by quite different from philosophy ways of talking and investigation of knowledge, especially in social sciences. More significant than emergence of competitors of philosophy in production of knowledge about knowledge (sociology, history, anthropology) was that they introduce a new regime of this production. This regime became empirical. Within that regime knowledge is objectified not as homogeneous order of representation, but as fuzzy dynamic set of heterogeneous elements, relations between which are complex and historically variable. The claims of non-philosophical disciplines to investigate knowledge generate the field of uncertainties and problematisations. Just this field is referred to as “historical epistemology". But this field is also space of conceptual imagination, where the new ways to investigate knowledge are worked on, when refusing to ascribe to it any ultimate (transcendent or transcendental) specification.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Zinaida Sokuler З.А. Сокулер
Historical epistemology and the fate of theory of knowledge in philosophy
Историческая эпистемология и судьба философской теории познанияhy

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Historical epistemology is argued to be viewed at as a historically formed name for a heterogeneous complex of philosophical, sociological, historical studies of sciences, which are integrated by their common epistemological orientation - epistemological anti-foundationalism. The latter is defended against the accusations of the extreme relativism.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexander Pisarev А.А. Писарев
Historical epistemology: epistemology and the other philosophy
«Историческая эпистемология»

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The author considers the thesis about the opposition between the universal (philosophy of science) and particular (history of science), and about the retreat of epistemology in their juxtaposition to the transformations in contemporary philosophy during last decades and its links to science studies. He claims that in order to define historical epistemology project a reason to support this project is to be found.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Olga Koshovets О.Б. Кошовец
Production of knowledge about the knowledge: from the need for the “normalizing law” to the interdisciplinary exchange and competition
Производство знания о знании

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The author discusses the reasons for the disciplinary and epistemological uncertainty of historical epistemology - why it is theoretically heterogeneous and fragmented as well why it needs excessive object domain and instrumental diversity, and what is the reason for its weak comparing with the philosophy of science disciplinary status. In this context, the author considers the conditions of the philosophy of science emergence that is the era of the science transformation into a productive force which causes the objective demand for “epistemological normativity". The author puts forward the hypothesis about the reasons that have led the philosophy of science to the subsequent loss of its role of normative meta-discourse. In particular, it's drawn attention to the problem of overproduction of scientific knowledge and the fundamental impact of this factor on the development of the modern science both on the epistemological and the institutional levels.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Tatiana Sokolova Т.Д. Соколова
Why so complicated?
Зачем так усложнять?

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In the article, author criticizes some points made by S.M. Gavrilenko regarding the status of historical epistemology and other social and humanitarian disciplines. Here the author relies mainly on the French tradition of historical epistemology, as well as emphasizes the need to keep clear the disciplinary boundaries between epistemology, philosophy of science, history and sociology of science.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Stanislav Gavrilenko С.М. Гавриленко
Historical epistemology: necessary complications: Reply to critics
Историческая эпистемология: необходимые усложнения

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This paper sums up the discussion on historical epistemology, pointing on it's ambivalence as singled out place in intellectual field and as some project, that should be assembled. Based on remarks of the discussion participants, we make an assumption, that historical epistemology is a specific zone of maneuvers and interchanges between philosophy and empirical studies of knowledge.
epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vladimir Filatov B. П. Филатов
Legal Marxism and philosophy of science
Легальный марксизм и философия науки

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At the end of the XIX century in the Russian socio-economic community dispute occurred on how to modernize the country - dispute about “the fate of capitalism" in Russia. One of the parties in this dispute were “legal marxists". The article analyzes the social, ideological and theoretical contexts of this dispute. It is shown that the marginal revolution significantly change the situation in the economics of that time. From the standpoint of the philosophy of science is given a rational reconstruction of the changing attitudes of legal marxists to Marx's economic theory. It is shown that they are quite rationally evaluated Marx's theory as obsolete and regressing and seen in marginal program a new and promising alternative in economic theory.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Sofia Danko C. В. Данько
Logic, meaning and value from the performative perspective of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s “Tractatus Logico-Philosophics”
Логика, смысл и ценность в перформативном измерении «Логико-философского трактата» Людвига Витгенштейна

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Many contemporary scholars converge the main issues of the “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" with B. Russell's agenda aimed at eliminating language confusion that causes “fundamental philosophical problems". Although this may be correct to a certain degree, the main idea of the “Tractatus" often remains overlooked: according to Wittgenstein, establishing the language boundaries must lead us to the inexpressible meanings and values of life, and somehow demonstrate them. It was done by Wittgenstein in “Tractatus", however results of his activity still remain in some way confidential, leaving a scope to various versions in this respect. This paper represents one of the possible approaches to this problem. It consists in the ultimate radicalization of characteristics of the logical structure showing that the facts within only the logical structure cannot be understood and described in comprehensible propositions. Thereby, it is possible to highlight the logical level of language and to show some non-logical meanings and values that contribute to the understanding of the world. This approach allows to show the performative perspective of "Tractatus" and to find the appropriate place for values and senses among the language expression.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vitalii Sukhovyi В.И. Суховой
Consciousness, reduction and physicalism
Сознание, редукция и физикализм

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This paper is dedicated to the mind-body problem. My aim is to show that not only consciousness resists to reductive explanation, but also that the latter itself is a big, complex and yet unsolved problem.And if there is a gap between conscious phenomenal experience and other psychical processes as dualists think I will show that similar gaps exist between different facts of such sciences as psychology (intentions, desires etc.) and neurophysiology (activation of nervous system). And the very fact of existence of such gaps is compatible with physicalism. I also aim to show that resistance of consciousness's reduction to the physical processes is compatible with the doctrine of physicalism.The well-known argument in the defense of dualism belongs to the philosopher David Chalmers which is often also called “the zombie-argument". This argument tries to demonstrate that consciousness is irreducible to the physical facts. Zombie- argument grounds on the two premises: 1) reducibility of physical facts and 2) the possibility of complete physics. The former means that conjunction of all microphysical facts is sufficient for inference of the only one conjunction of macrophysical facts. I will try to show that we can infer from the very same conjunction of microphysical facts to different conjunctions of macrophysical facts even if the whole system would be identical in its own behaviour. Thereafter if my arguments are sound it would demonstrate that irreducibility of consciousness isn't enough for conclusion that physicalism is wrong.