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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ilya T. Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
Norms in cognition and cognition of norms
Нормы в познании и познание норм

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The question about epistemic nature of norms is a special case of discussing the non-standard definition of knowledge. Is it possible to expand the understanding of knowledge beyond the proposi­tions expressed by narrative sentence and describing what takes place? Might a moral norm, an aesthetic ideal, a religious symbol be taken as specific types of knowledge? Thesis on the special epistemological status of science, its empirical basis and methods lies in the basis of naturalistic revision of epistemology by Quine. White, on the contrary, considers scientific observations and moral experiences equal means to justify objective and normative content in science as well as in morality and art. With regard to the contemporary expansion of the subject matter of epistemology White is more advantageous, although both sides ultimately do not extend beyond reduction of all cultural phenomena to the facts of individual consciousness. The resolution of the dispute under consideration can be provided by the turn of epistemological reflection to the study of the cognitive content of cultural objectivizations of human activity and communication, to the analysis of specific forms of representation and functions of whatever cognitive phenomena in the social artifacts. On the one hand, this extends the subject-matter of traditional epistemology by involving all the diversity of consciousness and on the other hand, this prepares methodological insights for cultural and reli­gious studies, ethics, aesthetics, and political science.
panel discussion i
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander M. Dorozhkin А.М. Дорожкин
Design – and typology problems of trading zones
Проблемы построения и типологии зон обмена

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This article is aimed to encourage discussions on the problem of scientific and extra-scientific knowledge exchange. The author describes this problem within the framework of the trading zone, a concept introduced by P. Galison. We suggest a typology of trading zones in terms of “Galisonian,” “Humboldtian,” and “non-Humboldtian” zones. To reveal specific characteristics of different situations in an exchange of knowledge, the allegory of the tunnel is given. The peculiarities of the exchange between scientific and extra-scientific environments are expressed through the notion of a partial alienation.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Igor I. Sulima И.И. Сулима
Social philosophy of science in search of tools
Социальная философия науки в поисках инструментария

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Ensuing discussion on the process of understanding in the areas of exchange and eventually to the status of social philosophy science can not reach the problem of the possibility or the impossibility of understanding. The recognition of the possibilities of understanding does not eliminate the problem of social value searching mechanisms of the organization of zones of awareness in society about processes in science. The recognition of possibilities of understanding, the Convention in science does not eliminate the problem of searching mechanisms of the organization of areas of understanding between scientists and between scientists and society.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Georgi P. Kornev Г.П. Корнев
Trading zones: the understanding and construction in science and philosophy
Зона обмена

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The author considers the specifics of “trading zones” as a cognitive model for the study of interdisciplinary interaction which is aimed to compensate lack of understanding between different scientific and non-scientific practices. It is argued that “trading zones” represents the unity of its intellectual, material and social components that creates the «communications area» for joint activities to produce new creative products. It is emphasized that the understanding of the mechanism of formation and functioning of the “trading zone” is a matter of epistemology. It is also claimed that “trading zones” provide the mediation in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary researches.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Natalia G. Baranets, Natalia N. Voronina Н.Г. Баранец
The problem of trading zones’ mediators
Проблема медиаторов «зон обмена»

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The authors aim to consider the problem of motivation of “trading zones’” actors. They pay special attention to understanding the way in which the interactions of different approaches and cultures take place. It’s claimed that “trading zones” relationships overcome the boundaries of habitual relationships. The authors analyze the emerging interest to transdisciplinary research In Russian philosophy. They discuss worldview dynamics within “trading zones” which is aimed to make the multidirectional interactions possible. It is noted that this sort of interactions requires both the acceptance of existing views and the need to go beyond them. It is argued that a combination of cultural and transcultural worldview elements is needed for a successful “trading zones” mediation. The authors point out to the problem of modernization of philosophical education that’s required to provide future specialists with universal ways of knowledge, communication and comprehension.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Yuri K. Volkov Ю.К. Волков
The conception of “trading zones” as a new kind of soft externalism
Концепция зон обмена как новая разновидность умеренного экстернализма

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The author discusses A. M. Dorozhkin’s ideas about constructing and typology of “trading zones”. He considers the influence of the substantive economics’ on science and education. The author argues that the universality of the institutions of reciprocity, redistribution and trade makes possible their stability in the process of institutionalization of scientific and educational activities.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander M. Dorozhkin А.М. Дорожкин
Reply to critics
Ответ оппонентам

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panel discussion ii
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Linguistic universals in the structure of understanding
Языковые универсалии в структуре понимания

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The author considers a problem of understanding. He claims that we understand texts, cultural objects rather than a man. He considers understanding as a process of interpretation of linguistic expressions and cultural objects. The author observes two sides of the meaning of linguistic expressions: a general (or social) one, which is common in a certain language community, and a personal one, which defines personal understanding. It is argued that mutual understanding is possible only on the stage of general meaning. However, the exchange of personal meanings is a very sophisticated process.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ilya T. Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
The splendor and misery of linguistic universals
Блеск и нищета языковых универсалий

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The author singles out the functions of understanding and interpretation in terms of their object – nature, culture or the life world of man. The critical arguments are proposed against the strict separation of understanding and interpreting by A. L. Nikiforov. The author provides examples of paradoxes and other difficulties arising from their juxtaposition. He also formulates objections against the limited interpretation of linguistic universals as conceptual constructs. He proposes a hypothesis on the genesis of some empirical universals in science (chemical element by R. Boyle). Finally, he suggests the idea of a complex structure of language universals to be discovered by philosophical analysis.
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ekaterina V. Vostrikova, Petr S. Kusliy Е.В. Вострикова
Understanding in philosophy of language
Понимание в философии языка

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This paper addresses the question of understanding of language expressions. We argue that understanding of language expressions can be successfully studied within a general approach of formal semantics and pragmatics. We show how three types of meanings of expressions (truth conditional meaning, presuppositional component and implicatures) contribute to our general understanding of what was said and how those meanings can be studied within the formal approach.