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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Ilya T. Kasavin Илья Теодорович Касавин
Migration: an interdisciplinary concept and its epistemological dimensions
Миграция: междисциплинарное понятие и его эпистемологические измерения

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The article tends to clarify the possibilities of philosophical interpretation of migration concept in terms of its meanings in the sciences. The concept of migration appears as an empirical generalization and as a metaphor in different disciplines. In the first case, one dwells upon moving of the real living agents in space, in the second one it deals with the dynamics of quasi-agents (cells, programs, ideas). In order to clarify the conceptual status of migration, the author undertakes its contextualization in the process of anthropogenesis. Hence the archetypical character of migration is displayed as ontological framework of key developments of the emergence of the humans and as catalyst of socio-cultural development in general (E. Cassirer). The paper clarifies the possibility of identifying the structure of migration as a journey and adventure (A.N. Whitehead) in the form of uneven development and recurrence of the original event. The paradox of its legitimation is formulated. Philosopher’s “vnenahodimost” (M.M. Bakhtin), the ambivalence of philosophy (T.I. Oiserman) is the discovery of the philosopher as a stalker between the worlds.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Amanda Machin, Nico Stehr Аманда Мэчин
On the power of scientific knowledge: Interview with Nico Stehr
О власти научного знания

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3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Ilya T. Kasavin Илья Теодорович Касавин
Disciplinary classifications and normative regulation of science
Дисциплинарные классификации и нормативное регулирование науки

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The author considers some essential problems of philosophical considerations of disciplinary classifications in sciences with the reference to some Russian science classification systems. He de­velops the working definition of science and some criteria which make it possible to understand the principles of these classifi­cations. He also observes some modern Russian approaches to the problem of disciplinary classification (in particular, Bonifatiy M. Kedrov’s approach). The author emphasizes some special as­pects of classifications in cognitive science, computer science, and biology.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Tatiana D. Sokolova Татьяна Дмитриевна Соколова
Computer Science: features of Russian classification
Computer Science: особенности отечественного классифицирования

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The article deals with Russian scientific classifications (GRNTI, VAK) of computer science in comparison with Western scien­tific classifications Fields of Science and Technology (FOS) and Universal Decimal Classification (UDS). The author analyzes the basics and principles of these classifications, identifies their strong and weak points as well as their influence on the devel­opment of computer sciences. She also provides some recom­mendations on adjustments of Russian scientific classifications aiming to make them more flexible and adaptive to the faster scientific and technological development and interdisciplinary cooperation.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Olga E. Stoliarova Ольга Евгеньевна Столярова
Philosophical approaches to classifications of sciences: biology
Философские подходы к классификациям наук: биология

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This paper analyzes the phenomenon of classification of sciences as a subject of philosophical investigations. What is going on at the object- and the meta- levels of classifications of sciences? What is the structure of the meta-level of scientific classifications? The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of philosophical approaches to the construction and analysis of scientific classifica­tions. Social epistemology and historical epistemology have shown to be the most effective in analyzing both scientific classifications and classifications of sciences. The paper discusses substantive, methodological, cultural, and historical criteria of scientific classi­fications as they are applied to contemporary biology. Some of the contemporary problems of scientific classifications are considered through the reading of biological disciplinary classifications. It is shown that the classification disciplines in biology is organized ac­cording to the ontological, epistemological and social frameworks.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Evgeniy V. Maslanov Евгений Валерьевич Масланов
Engineering: aspects of the object field construction
Технические науки: особенности конструирования предметного поля

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The article examines the representation of technical sciences in the various classifications of sciences. The classification of the sciences oriented to different models of design field technical knowledge. The GRNTI classifier is trying to streamline the technical sciences on the basis of their correlation with the branches of the economy. In the VAK classifier “technical sciences” are presented not only as related to the creation of “artificial”, “technical” objects, but also as a result of interaction between representatives of various scientific disciplines, different influence groups. Technical sciences are de­signed, in particular, under the influence of scientific policy.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Alexandra A. Argamakova Александра Александровна Аргамакова
Socio – technical disciplines in scientific classifications
Место социотехнических дисциплин в классификаторах научных направлений

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This paper is the reply within the journal discussion on the clas­sifications of sciences. It analyses how well Russian key classifi­cations of scientific disciplines represent socio-technical fields of studies. Author formulates recommendations about principles for such classifications and makes concrete suggestions for changes. Practically oriented analysis is followed after preliminary consider­ations, concerning the nature of philosophy, its practical goals and social power of social epistemology.
epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Yulia V. Shaposhnikova, Lada V. Shipovalova Юлия Владимировна Шапошникова
The demarcation problem in the history of science, or what historical epistemology has to say about cultural identification
Проблема демаркации в истории науки, или что может сказать историческая эпистемология о культурной идентификации

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This article discusses mechanisms of demarcation in science, as a case of establishing identity – one of the topical problems of contemporary cultural studies. Evidently, the quality of cultural interaction depends on the status of the other in relation to one’s identity. Contemporary cultural studies distinguish two types of this interaction: exclusion, i.e. suppression of the other as a condi­tion for the formation of one’s identity; and inclusion, a retrieval of the excluded, leading to the transformation of one’s identity. This article claims that the historical epistemology, as a special ap­proach to the history of science, has elaborated a number of strat­egies regulating the relationship of science and non-science in the form of an attitude of present science towards its past. The article examines four of these strategies – three of them construct the identity of science through establishing boundaries and by exclud­ing the other; the fourth presupposes acknowledging the other and endowing it with actuality. The last strategy demonstrates the dialogue between science and its other in action and, more importantly, identifies the necessary condition for the successful interaction – the destruction of a homogeneous scientific identity and allowance of self-identification to continue with­out end. Consequently, study­ing the types of interaction between scientific and non-scientific views in the field of historical epistemology allows one to conceptualize the gen­eral procedure of establishing cultural identification.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Sofia V. Pirozhkova Софья Владиславовна Пирожкова
The principle of participation and contemporary mechanisms of producing knowledge in science
Принцип участия и современные механизмы производства знаний в науке

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The article deals with the problem of how production of scientific knowledge transforms nowadays. It is shown that current situation puts forward problem of integration different types of knowledge (not only scientific) – both for producing general meanings, and scientific knowledge. This problem is reflected in several conceptions in the philosophy of science: postacademic science, technoscience, transdisciplinarity. The author pays attention to an idea to be found in these conceptions and some current basic and applied studies; she calls it “the principle of participation”. A few embodiments of this principle are brought out, its conceptual core is revealed, epistemological questions this principle generates in respect to scientific knowledge are defined and some of them are considered in the article: what is a mechanism for aggregating dispersed knowledge? what is the difference between dispersed knowledge and dispersed information? who is the agent of such forms of production of knowledge as Delphi, scientific crowdsourcing, civic science and foresight? Several strategies of knowledge production in modern science (both academic and postacademic) are revealed, two versions of the principle of participation are proposed.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Konstantin G. Frolov Константин Геннадьевич Фролов
Metaphysics of correspondence: some approaches to the classical theory of truth
Метафизика соответствия: некоторые подходы к корреспондентной теории истины

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The article examines main competing conceptions of the cor­respondence theory of truth. First, the author investigates pos­sible candidates for the role of truth-bearers. Among those he examines following entities: instances of sentences as concrete sequences of symbols (sounds or letters), which should satisfy wide scope of requirements, such as to be grammatical, mean­ingful, affirmative and so on; abstract propositions, which are ex­pressed by concrete sentences; utterances (either explicit or in lingua mentalis); beliefs of agents as their special mental states. Then he turns to the study of possible candidates for the role of truth-makers, i.e. of those entities to which truth-bearers should correspond to be true. He observes states of affairs, situations, facts and mereological sums of individuals. Then he shows that a notion of correspondence is a functional relationship of interpre­tation of linguistic expressions, where certain fragment of real­ity is taken as a model, i.e. as a finite set of elements on which some functions and relations can be operationally defined. He shows how in some simple cases such interpretation function can be built in operationalist’s manner. After that, he considers some natural objections to this approach, which point that he has no direct cognitive access to the actual world, so it is not possible to take its fragments as a model for any theory. Such objections lead us to the coherentist’s approach, but he shows that the question about origin and status of so-called “specified set” implicitly either leads to infinite regress or requires certain correspondence on some level of investigation and reasoning. Finally, the authore presents some reflections on the meaning of correspondence approach for scientific realism and all other versions of realistic philosophy and metaphysics.