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1. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
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2. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Changing Times
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3. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
C. A. Bowers The Conservative Misinterpretation of the Educational Ecological Crisis
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Conservative educational critics (e.g., Allan Bloom, Mortimer Adler, and E. D. Hirsch, Jr.) have succeeded in flaming the debate on the reform of education in a manner that ignores the questions that should be asked about how our most fundamental cultural assumptions are contributing to the ecological crisis. In this paper, I examine the deep cultural assumptions embedded in their reform proposals that furtherexacerbate the crisis, giving special attention to their view of rational empowerment, the progressive nature of change, and their anthropocentric view of the universe. I argue that their form of conservatism must be supplanted by the more biocentric conservatism of such thinkers as Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, and Gary Snyder.
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4. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
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5. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
J. Baird Callicott Rolston on Intrinsic Value: A Deconstruction
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Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of the metaphysical foundations of modem science—a problem Rolston never directly confronts. The modern scientific world view is obsolete. A post-modem scientific world view provides for a range of potential values in nature actualizable upon interaction with consciousness. The bestthat a modem scientific world view can provide are subject-generated—though not necessarily subject-centered—values in nature.
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6. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
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7. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Lawrence E. Johnson Toward the Moral Considerability of Species and Ecosystems
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I develop the thesis that species and ecosystems are living entities with morally significant interests in their own right and defend it against leading objections. Contrary to certain claims, it is possible to individuate such entities sufficiently well. Indeed, there is a sense in which such entities define their own nature. I also consider and reject the argument that species and ecosystems cannot have interests or even traits in their own right because evolution does not proceed on that level. Although evolution proceeds on the level of the genotype, those selected are able to cooperate in entities of various higher orders—including species and ecosystems. Having their own nature and interests, species and ecosystems can meaningfully be said to have moral standing.
discussion papers
8. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Robert C. Fuller American Pragmatism Reconsidered: William James’ Ecological Ethic
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In this paper, I argue that pragmatism, at least in its formulation by William James, squarely addresses the metaethical and normative issues at the heart of our present crisis in moral justification. James gives ethics an empirical foundation that permits the natural and social sciences a clear role in defining our obligation to the wider environment. Importantly, James’ pragmatism also addresses the psychological and cultural factors that help elicit our willingness to adopt an ethical posture toward life.
9. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
J. Douglas Rabb From Triangles to Tripods: Polycentrism in Environmental Ethics
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Callicott’s basic mistake in his much regretted paper ”Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair” is to think of the anthropocentric, zoocentric, and biocentric perspectives as mutually exclusive alternatives. An environmental ethics requires, instead, a polycentric perspective that accommodates and does justice to all three positions in question. I explain the polycentric perspective in terms of an analogy derived from the pioneering work of Canadian philosopher Rupert C. Lodge and distinguish it from both pragmatism and moral pluralism.
book reviews
10. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Max Oelschlaeger The Practice of the Wild
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