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Dialogue and Universalism

Volume 18, Issue 7/8, 2008
Epistemology—From Old Dilemmas to New Perspectives

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Displaying: 1-10 of 19 documents

1. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Małgorzata Czarnocka Editorial — Epistemology in Flux
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2. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Marek Hetmański Preface
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i. between tradition and present times
3. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Marek Hetmański Epistemology—Old Dilemmas and New Perspectives
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The paper presents a survey of traditional problems tackled by epistemology throughout its history, especially its meta-theoretical inclination as well as the old dilemma of its normative versus descriptive nature. I sketch the prevailing models of epistemological normativity (epistemic values such as truth, falsity, justification, or evidence etc.), and show how they function, what their essence and genesis are, how they change and what influences them. I also consider the utility of epistemology for science, education and practice in respect of its critical disposition toward cognition, knowledge, and communication. Finally, I outline some perspectives epistemology could open if it would really analyze and predict the complex and manifold human cognitive phenomena.
ii. epistemology in the socio-cultural context
4. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Barbara Tuchańska Replacing Epistemology with a Socio-historical Hermeneutics of Cognition. A Project for Research and Teaching
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I argue that philosophical reflection on cognition and knowledge should not be shaped into an epistemological theory in a strict sense. It ought to be understood as a hermeneutic study of the social and dynamic (historical) nature of cognition.
5. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Barbara Kotowa A Historical and Cultural Research Perspective in Epistemology
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In the paper I point out to some problems of the traditional epistemology, i.e. epistemology oriented to search the foundations of cognitive evaluation. The epistemology of that kind which makes up the world outlook of science, I oppose the cultural studies reflection in a scientific knowledge practiced within one of the humanities domains of knowledge, for example, the theoretical history of science, which is limited in its cognitive tasks to the descriptive, reconstructive and explanatory study of science.
6. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Alina Motycka Cognitive Actions in Scientific Research and Epistemology
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The fundamental—from the philosophy of science point of view—question of the growth of scientific knowledge implicates epistemological investigations of the creation context in science. In the paper I am arguing this thesis.
7. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Elżbieta Pakszys What and To Whom Is Particularism for in the Theory of Cognition? On the Feminist Epistemological Destination
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A woman’s perspective, or the so called feminist standpoint, needs to be incorporated into a theory of cognition to highlight its particular stance, to counter the present tendency to expect special advantages in cognition connected with gender specific (feminine) experience, which though not yet sufficiently recognized, is often neglected or denied to women.The most clarified stances, however, are not claiming the right to universality, considering the rather important anthropological/contextual differences between the subject/s of knowledge concerning race, ethnicity and sexual orientation. If ever to look for pragmatic justifications feminist epistemology needs to be a philosophical discipline, in order to indicate new ways/directions through a detailed critique of traditional knowledge and science, as well as present new goals and methods, especially for particular disciplines with anthropological problems.The humanitarian mission in the project of “imprinting women into the process and result of cognition” one can consider as simply an additional factor justifying the development of philosophical particularism in gynocentric studies following the democratization of recent formulations and institutions regarding knowledge/cognition.
iii. autonomous and priviliged position of epistemology
8. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Józef Dębowski On Epistemology and Some of Its Oddities. Why I Am Not a Representationist
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I argue for a standpoint that—against various kinds of naturalism—epistemology is a complete philosophical science. Epistemology is theoretically and methodologically self-sufficient. It has its good described subject, its characteristic research methods and its exactly described goal. The subject of epistemology is broadly comprehended cognition (knowledge)—cognition (knowledge) is comprehended as action as well as result. Among various methods peculiar to philosophy it is necessary to distinguish first of all phenomenological, transcendental and analytical methods. However, the main goal of epistemology has been and still is a solution of the objective cognition issue—the problem of cognition adequacy and of its transcendence. Epistemology can achieve this goal only when: (1) it resists the temptation of its subject naturalization; (2) against the propositional theory of truth it operates a broad concept of cognition; (3) against manykinds of representationism (mediatism) it does not resign from the concept of direct cognition, i.e. view of presentationism. Thanks to reference to source cognitions and direct knowledge the realistic world view is also defendable.
9. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Aldona Pobojewska, Michał Lachman Epistemology and Science: Integrism or Separatism
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Epistemology, confronted with a rapid development of individual branches of science, has been pressed to establish its own status and position as well as to define its relation with science. The multiple perspectives on this issue can be grouped into two major positions: integrism (postulates a close co-existence between epistemology and science) and separatism (argues in favour of a full independence of science and epistemology).In the paper I analyse the two views and try to prove that the debate between integrism and separatism cannot be resolved, as the two approaches belong to different and incompatible philosophical traditions: analytical and transcendental. In the article these issues are examined, and arguments in favour of the separatist view are offered. It is argued for the clear separation of epistemology from science.
10. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 7/8
Renata Ziemińska My Experience in the Field of Epistemology
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The paper presents four stages of author’s epistemological experience: Roman Ingarden’s autonomous theory of knowledge, the anti-naturalistic theory of knowledge by Roderick Chisholm, the naturalistic epistemology by Alvin Goldman, and the epistemology of classical problems of truth and skepticism. The conclusion is the following: epistemology should make use of human knowledge results, especially cognitive sciences and reflect on the problem of truth, the challenge of skepticism, the possibility of knowledge and human cognitive condition (science, religion, art). The social role of the epistemologist is not to resolve all these existentially important questions but to be an expert (to know the state of discussion and to deliver his/her opinions).