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Displaying: 1-20 of 22 documents


1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Aida Farhat Le Statut Personnel: Exemple : Le Serment du Dos (zihâr)
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In this article, I will try to explain the meaning of the word zihâr, translated as oath of the back, trying only to situate it in its context and to bring an elucidation of the subject`s origin. The zihâr is a type of repudiation used by a husband against his wife in the times of gâhiliyya (the ante-Islamic period), by using a solemn divorce formula which consists in saying: "let (her) be from now on as the back of my mother". Therefore, backing up on this formula, I want to try to clarify this concept.
2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Costantino Paonessa Il diritto di famiglia in Egitto: lo "Stato" nel ruolo di interprete della Legge islamica
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The Islamic contestation of the last twenty years has in many aspects called into question the legitimacy of current juridical systems of supposedly MuslimCountries. Their adoption of another rationality of the law is today a well affirmed process but has left many consequences.In the article we will try to explain in which way the šarî'a, being a religious law, is completely controlled by the usage given to it by the State through the supremacy of the Constitution, its means, institutions and actors. It is therefore a question of the level of its integration into « the law » of various countries with the emphasis on the necessity of change of perspective, where the "secularisation of Islamic law" should rather be regarded as "islamisation of the Positive law", at least when referring to Family law and, above all, when dealing with specific political conditions.
3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Guy Trolliet Should Businesses and Corporations Set up a "Department of Islamic affairs"?
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In a world in which globalisation has opened the access to Muslim countries, Muslim community having been identified as a distinctive high potential market, the question if businesses and corporations should set up a „Department of Islamic affairs" became more than pertinent.
4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Daniel Ungureanu Between Islamism and Islam
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Islamism is a form of political and religious utopia, created by the Arab-Muslim world, as an ideological alternative to the invasion of modern western doctrines: communism, socialism, liberalism, capitalism etc. This political and ideological current appears to some as a substitute for nationalism, which lost its appealin many Muslim countries, due to the application of a „socialist" model, as well as due to the deception that emerges from the successive defeats in the fight with the Israeli enemy. The anti-Occidentalism of this movement is seen as a side effect in the fight against laicization, against materialism and moral degradation.
5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma In Quest of the Measure's Restoration
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The acute consciousness of the moral crisis we face today makes us to inquire after the philosophy's opportunities in finding a viable way to overcome seriousworries concerning life, world, and human being. We think that the ethical value of measure and the correlated principle of "golden mean" could enlighten, on a high level, our understanding upon the real needs and purposes to be identified in assuming and cultivating a fitting attitude to an authentic humanness in accordance with the demands of nowadays characteristics of the globalization development. Returning to the measure's integrator meaning that has been acknowledged by the Ancient thinkers of the Western culture, in this essay we try to emphasize the capital significance of the notion at stake, beyond any particularities of temporal and spatial context, like a basic philosophical concept to be explored and activated in its valences of promoting and increasing the quality of life. We pronounce for the necessity of measure's restoration in which, first of all, our moral status in the world has to be grounded. More than ever, weneed to recover the measure as a guide in shaping human deliberations, choices, decisions making, actions into a constructive orbit, into equilibrium and order, security and harmony, into Good and Right, by commitment, respect for and responsibility toward the whole life on Terra. A culture of measure, eventually, is fully worth to be displayed in the framework of the moral philosophy in driving at the human well-being and at the wellness of the total existence, alike.
6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
David Cornberg Semiotics as a Pathway to Spiritual Science: From the Culture of Addiction to Absolute Freedom
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The continuing growth of semiotics signifies increased awareness of global communicative processes. Expansion of the communicative universe through semiotic research furthers the transformation of our contemporary experience. Semiotics thus provides a means to articulate transmodernity. We validate this assertion through semiotic analysis of an everyday object, by which we discover an infinite horizon. With that horizon, we transcend the global culture of addiction and reach the spiritual science that is necessary to develop a lasting paradigm for humankind.
7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Nicolae Râmbu Axiological Reflections about Don Quijote
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This paper is about Cervante's hero, Don Quijote, who is not, axiological speaking, a comical character, as he was usually viewed, but a profound and tragicfigure. He is the idealist who believes sincerely in the high values and ideals and fights for their accomplishment. Don Quijote is like a mirror in which is reflected the moral pettiness of the others, and this is the reason for his hard punishment. The reputation of the nicest crazy man on earth represents such punishment.
8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Horia Bádescu La Fête Perdue
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The lost celebration. To live the sacred, that means to admit its presence in the world and to celebrate this presence; respectively, to affirm the presence of its absolute value, of the Meaning, finally, in the horizon of harmony and joy, and to fill up ourselves by that. In nowadays, do we really know to live the feast, namely the feast of our spirit? Do we still have the wish and the wisdom to institute sacred times and spaces, to offer our soul to the joy and not to the manipulation, to the ritual and not to the rut-ness? Are we able to escape from the tyranny of clamor and of instinct? These are questions to which we are trying to find some answers in our essay.
9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Aleksandra Pawliszyn Archaeology of the Body and Womanhood
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The subject of the paper is a philosophical analysis of the womanhood in the context of M. Merleau-Ponty`s ontology of corporeality (la chair). The womanhood is grasped (after Levinas) as a cosmic element, penetrating the tissue of the embodiment of the logos of the world. As an element of the same ontological level as death, the womanhood on the one hand brakes up the stability instilled in the human world and introduces an anxiety into a plural entity. On the other hand it also brings in a vigil, which generates responsibility for the stability instilled in the human world.
10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Kazimierz Mrówka Les Routes de Nuit et de Jour. L'analyse du fragment B1 du Poème de Parménide
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In my article I analyze one fragment (B1) of the poem On Nature of Parmenides, which introduces the entire work. I describe the journey of the young man,from darkness to light, as a mystic way to the Truth (Aletheia), the way of gnosis.
11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Raffaella Santi Beyond the Bounds of Experience? John Tyndall and Scientific Imagination
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"You imagine where you cannot experiment"... John Tyndall is a 19th century Irish scientist and natural philosopher. For him, scientific imagination is thefaculty that enables scientists "to transcend the boundaries of the sense" and to connect the visible with the invisible - by forming mental images of phenomena, and tracing links among them. This article reconstructs his theory of scientific imagination, focusing on the central passages found in his works.
12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Horst Baier „Gedankenbilder. Kultur als Konstruktion und Konstitution des Sozialen – am Leitfaden Max Webers“
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“Analytical construct. The Culture as construct and the constitution of the social – fallowing Max Weber”. The key of this paper is the chalange to determinate theplace of the cultural sociology in the context of the general sociology and of the other cultural sciences, like cultural anthropology and ethnology. For doing that it is necessary to analize Max Weber’s concept: Gedankenbild.
13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Dan Chiţoiu The Theme of the Simplicity of the Mind as the Presupposition of the Byzantine Cultural Model
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This article discuss the origin of the Byzantine Cultural Model, influenced by the patristic anthropologic perspective, which discerns that present-day man is notgeneric man, but is at an intermediate stage, between a lost condition and one that could be attained. A dimension of the Eastern Christian understanding of man that is less known nowadays is related to the theme of the garment of skin. This is connected with another one, the theme of the simplicity of the mind.
14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Tomiţă Ciulei Reflections on an Ignored Dimension of Pre-Socratic Philosophy: Knowledge
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This paper bases on a (great!) wrongful act which was made to Greek philosophy, and especially to the pre-Socratic one: the unilateral abatement of thestudies to those of cosmological nature. The big mutation would take place in Socrates’ time, who by the anthropology of the discourse takes philosophy to a theory of knowledge, through a program which would be perfected by Plato and especially by Aristotle. This is a point of view co-substantial to history of philosophy, which some times risks to charge in an alethic (good/bad) way a paradigm based on false discussions. Pre-Socratics were not only preoccupied by ontology, or even cosmology, as well as Aristotle was not a radical empirist. In the economy of thought the nuances are more important than a classification often made for our epistemological comfort.
15. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Kazimierz Mrówka Le Concept de Logos chez Héraclite. L’Analyse Du Fragment B1
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“The concept of Logos at Heraclitus. The analyze of B1 fragment”. “Logos” is the most important word in the Heraclitus’ philosophy. One can tell, that Heraclitusis the philosopher of logos. The way of interpretation of this notion influences the comprehention of all work of the Greek thinker.The word appears eleven times in the following fragments : B 1, B 2, B 31, B 39, B 45, B 50, B 72, B 87, B 108, B 115 [numeration of Diels-Kranz]. Logos contains several notions, and it can not be reduced to one, as for exemple reason, speach, fire or god. The analyse of B1, where the logos apperas for the first time, shows the complexity of this term.
16. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Vlad Ichim The Political Plato
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This study deals with the issue of Plato’s political interest. Some say he had none. We’ll try to show that in fact he was very political, to the extent that the core ofhis work is a political agenda, and is politically orientated. There’s also the aspect of the relation between metaphysics and politics in his work; that is a delicate issue, as some consider that Plato “disguised” his political convictions in myths. That too will be taken into consideration.1. The number of metaphysical dialogues is small, compared to the vast majority of the platonic dialogues2. No only the writings, but also the life of Plato show him as political3. Even the “metaphysical” dialogues have a political agendaThere are authors that consider Plato to be no less than a forerunner of Christianity, a mystic conscious of the contemplation of an ideal “beyond”. One should bear in mind that Plato has even been declared a saint by the Orthodox Church. We choose to be more cautious in dealing with the interest that Socrates’ pupil is supposed to have taken into mystics (theory or practice). In the following pages, we’ll try to explain these reserves.
17. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Magdalena Iorga Ethical Dilemmas in Academic Activity
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The nowadays academic teacher’s activity is split between teaching activity, scientific research concern and institutional goals. As it appears in the studies focusing on academic problems that the teacher’s orientation is going to be rather personal and professional than academic. The new generation of academic staff is trying to mix solutions in order to survive the ethical problems. Academic ethics seems to be in the middle of an important triangle: personal, professional and corporate ethics.
18. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Nicolae Rambu Genio e Weltanschauung da Kant a Hitler
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During the Nazi regime, Immanuel Kant was the most studied German philosopher. The most important in this context is the theory of the genius and of thecreation of the genius that is developed especially in the Critique of Judgement. Kant defines the genius as the natural capacity of the personality to impose its own rules to the art. The Nazi ideologists had invoked this fact to justify philosophically the right of the Führer to impose its own rules to the art of politics. This is the reason of the attempt of the Nazi propaganda to project in the public conscience the image of one genius leader who, like the genius artist, imposes his own rules to the politics.
19. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Daniel Ungureanu De paidéuma à la shari`a
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“From Paideuma to Shari’a”. Paideuma, concept developed by Leo Frobenius at the beginning of the XXth century, seems to regain its proper actuality when we try to understand the Islamic civilization. Among the roots which define a paideuma, in the particular case of Islam we identified the shari’a as being the most significant one. Shari`a also brings with it a new dimension: the continuous extension of the paideuma, which overpasses frontiers and national identities. The famous sartrian expression “hell is the other” may occur only if we don`t know the Other enough.
20. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Simona Mitroiu The Culture at the Crossing between the Memory and the Oblivion
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The culture defines some of the elements that we consider identity guide marks. The continuity of the identity is very closely bonded to these cultural elements.The understanding of the modality to represent the identity is possible through the analysis of some of these cultural elements and of the correlations that these establish in the context of memory and oblivion. This paper analyzes the dynamics of these three elements: memory, identity and oblivion, in literature.