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Displaying: 1-20 of 30 documents


1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Asunción López-Varela Azcárate Intertextuality and Intermediality as Cross-cultural Comunication Tools: A Critical Inquiry
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Cross-cultural communication is about generating dialogical positions across cultural barriers. Communication is achieved when participants are able to construct meaning across varied sign systems. Oral communication makes use of a wide range of signs that contribute to make meaning, from eye contact to gestures and speech. In written/printed communication, together with the reproduction of visual images through painting, photography, etc., the most important resource is the textual format. Texts are grounded on a cognitive deictic basis and work alongside the cause-effect relationship that links events in human working memory. This relationship frequently posits a hierarchical dependency between the understanding of visual images, textuality and narrativity. Although texts are vehicles of contextualized information and cultural positions are often presented in a historiographical way, culture is not just about textuality; it is also about multimodality, that is, the use of symbolic forms that employ simultaneously several material-semiotic resources to create a kind of common framework of socially acceptable behaviours and customs which arise both from individual personal experiences and from shared cultural and ethical values. Signs areused to represent these values and, in turn, these representations affect their further emotional interiorization. This creates particular strong moments of remembrance and recollection in human memory. In addition, the production, distribution and reception of culture has always been dependent on changing material formats and technologies, from manuscripts to printed books, from mural painting to photography, and from architecture to virtual recreations on a computer screen. In recent years, the interest in intertextual and intermedial configurations is mostly due to the growth of hypermedia paradigms, and is reflected in the increasing number of disciplinary publications and conferences devoted to the topic. This paper shall explore the reasons behind a renewed interest in intertextual and intermedial manifestations in cross-cultural communication.
2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Giuseppe Cacciatore Intercultural Ethics and “Critical” Universalism
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The aim of this article is the analysis of a new model of intercultural ethics. In this way I propose a “creative” and dynamic version of universalism, which canbe used as a model for the construction of a pluralistic and intercultural philosophical perspective.
3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Robert C. Trundle Art as Certifiably Good or Bad: A Defence by Modal Logic
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Connections of beauty to science, whereby scientific truth informs truth about art, is denied by a Humean-Kantian-positivist tradition. Its denial of even scientifictheories being known to be true proceeds pari passu with denying any known truth in the less rigorous sciences such as aesthetics that, for Aristotle, studiesbeauty’s cause. Related to causation is a modern problem of “knowing we know”: knowledge in science presupposes a causal principle whose truth is not known when expressed as a truth-functional conditional. But by conditionals that are modal, among other things, this and other knotty epistemological problems may be resolved – resulting axiologically in claims about art that may be as certifiably true as the truths in biology, psychology and medicine that inform those claims.
4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Giuseppe D’Anna On the Correlativistic Construction of the Other. For an Analytical Anti-Spectacular Interculturalism: Nicolai Hartmann, György Lukács and Guy Debord
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In this paper I would like to demonstrate that the “society of spectacle” notably influences our idea of the other and our intercultural thought and practice.In this way the imagination is not a free creative capability of a human being, but a political and social instrument of power of the society of spectacle.
5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Che Mahzan Ahmad Notes on Ethno-Pragmatics as a Device for Intercultural Communication Intelligence (ICQ)
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Ethno-pragmatics as device to understand the culturally Other is essential when we believe that there is a nexus of intimate relationships between languageand culture. The whole idea of ethno-pragmatics is to understand local life-worlds in the wake of celebrating particularism in inter-cultural communication. Ethnopragmatics basically appreciates language practices in terms that make sense to the people concerned, whether in terms of indigenous values, beliefs, attitudes, social categories or emotions, and so on. Understanding cultural keywords is pertinent in ethno-pragmatics. These living words provide the best key to a culture’s values and assumptions, and they are embedded in the cultural scripts of the society/community. With the above positioning, we suggested that ethno-pragmatics be the device for intercultural communication intelligence (ICQ). In this work we employed a cultural script quest in order to capture/understand the tapestry of Malay culture. Bahasa (“language”) is one of the main Malay cultural keywords. The Malays relate bahasa to various norms and beliefs that encompass their life-world. Bahasa is molecularly related to their emotions, sense-making and aesthetics. As an illustration, we provide ICQ-at-work with halus as a technique of utilizing bahasa for successful speech-acts. Specifically, we narrate on Malay “indirectness” as a way of having conversation with the culturally Other.
6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Monica Riccio Democracy as a “Universal Value” and an Intercultural Ethics
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This article questions the universal value attributed to the idea of democracy within a global intercultural context. The point is: do “mature” Western democracies,with their history, their nature and their limits, meet the needs of intercultural ethics? A first factual finding shows that outside, at the frontiers of “mature” democracies, all possible openings to the exercise of democratic freedoms, to the protection of human rights, and to any hybrid form of relationship and dialogue are near to nothing. Not even within Western liberal democracies do egalitarian guarantees, which in any case are the heart and soul of the culture of democratic societies, manage to make room for the recognition of differences in equality and for truly dialogic practices. When they face up to the needs of a possible ethical culture, the principles that underpin contemporary democracies (one of them being universal equality) show an unpliability and an ambivalence often concealed up to now. Conversely, an a posteriori and artificially progressive pattern of the historical course of democracies has been constructed that has ended up “triumphing” and attaining the global, universal “success” of our days.
7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Scott H. Boyd Considering a Theory of Autopoietic Culture
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This article questions the predominance of pragmatism and fixed points of reference in academic paradigms regarding culture and proposes a theory of autopoietic culture based on a theory of living forms developed by the biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. The central part of the theory of autopoietic culture is that culture, something originating with humanity and reflected upon by the same, is an autonomous and autonomic unity that is a network of processes and production of components that are continuously generated and “recursively participate through their interactions in the generation and realization of the network of process of production of components which produced them” (Maturana, 1999: 149, 153). This article briefly refers to the theories of Thomas Sebeok, Juri Lotman, Niklas Luhmann and Pierre Bourdieu, which have similar components to the theory of autopoietic culture. The article concludes that within autopoietic culture whatever we would consider describing as a cultural element is not as significant as the processes within which it is part in the construction of its own boundary of discernment; our description of the process is always conducted with other observers in a linguistic domain; our existence carries its own ontogeny and creates perturbations in the structure (elements) which we distinguish; and there are an unknown number of elements and processes continuing in time within the unity that define the unity and are beyond our ability to distinguish.
8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Maximiliano E. Korstanje, Geoffrey Skoll Breaking the Symbolic Alienation: The New Role and Chalenges of Critical Philosophy in Next Millennium
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Many scholars in recent years have focused their efforts on revealing the connection of philosophy and authority. Basically, from Nietzsche onwards, philosophyhas witnessed ongoing efforts for “will to power” by some philosophers and of course this motivated many philosophers to take part in politics. Nonetheless, thismoot point engendered a serious risk and not only contrasted with the Socratic contributions, but also paved the way for the advent of a new way of making politics where philosophy and scientific prestige are being manipulated following certain interests. By comparing the US and Argentinian climates, this paper explores to what extent philosophy can and must remain independent of politics. Even though one might think of Heidegger as a clear example of this relationship, there are many other philosophers who were interested in politics and committed to political parties. One of the aspects that characterizes this new way of politics is the theatrification of reality, and philosophers are part of this process. To some extent, the prestige given to scholars for their contribution to society is being conferred to some privileged groups to gain more legitimacy, precisely in a world where the classical institutions are gradually declining.
9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Constantin Stoenescu The Ethos of Modern Science and the “Religious Melting Pot”: About the Topicality of Merton’s Thesis
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My aim in this paper is to discuss the topicality of Merton’s thesis with a twofold meaning: as an idea which has its own place in the sociology of science and as an idea which is currently in its area of research. Merton asserts that the development of science in 17th century England was aided by the Puritan ethic. This does not means that science was caused by Puritanism, but only that Puritanism provided major support for the scientific activity. Because secularization and integration were two complementary processes, the relationship between science and religion was not simple. I connect Merton’s thesis with Weber’s thesisabout Protestantism and capitalism and try to see it in the light of the cultural climate of its time. Finally, I argue that Merton offers a unified analysis of scienceas a social institution.
10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Wei Zhang Rational a priori or Emotional a priori? Husserl and Scheler’s Criticisms of Kant Regarding the Foundation of Ethics
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Based on the dispute between Protagoras and Socrates on the origin of ethics, one can ask the question of whether the principle of ethics is reason orfeeling/emotion, or whether ethics is grounded on reason or feeling/emotion. The development of Kant’s thoughts on ethics shows the tension between reason and feeling/emotion. In Kant’s final critical ethics, he held to a principle of “rational a priori.” On the one hand, this is presented as the rational a priori principle being the binding principle of judgment. On the other hand, it is presented as the doctrine of “rational fact” as the ultimate argument of his ethics. Husserl believed that Kant’s doctrine of a rational a priori totally disregarded the a priori essential laws of feeling. Like Husserl, Scheler criticized Kant’s doctrine of a rational a priori, and therefore developed his own theory of an “emotional a priori”. Both of them focused their critiques on the grounding level of ethics. Scheler, however, did not follow Husserl all the way, but criticized him and reflected on his thoughts. At last, he revealed the primary status of a phenomenological material ethics of value.
11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Petru Iluţ, Laura Nistor Some Aspects of the Relationship between Basic Human Values and Religiosity in Romania
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The article provides a summary of the analysis of the associations between Schwartz’s basic human values and religiosity in Romania, using the data of thefourth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS). Previous cross-cultural research has suggested that religiosity is positively and significantly associated withconservativeness and self-transcendence. On the other hand, negative associations were reported between religiosity and openness to change, while the association between religiosity and self-enhancement was less consistent. Our results succeeded in only marginally confirming these results in the case of Romania. Based on our data, religiosity is positively and significantly, but not extremely strongly, associated with conservativeness and self-transcendence; while the correlations between religiosity and openness to change, as well as between religiosity and self-enhancement values, although negative, are not statistically significant. These results suggest that, contrary to the findings of the mainstream literature, religious Romanians, while more conservative than their less religious counterparts, are not less concerned with values of self-gratification than the less religious respondents. These findings can be explained, probably, through the transition process, during which there occurs not only a macro-social departure from traditionalism to modernism, but also a transition in the individuals’ value priorities, which produces a nearly hazardous association between religiosity and values of self-gratification. Other possible reasons might be due to religious hypocrisy or to methodological bias associated with self-reported data.
12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Irina Polyakova Drama of Life: Philosophical Biography as an Event in Russian Culture
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This article discusses attempts of Russian philosophers of the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g. Vladimir Solovyev, Vladimir Ern, Nikolay Berdyaev) to suggest thegenre of “philosophical biography” as a special kind of philosophical work. So, philosophical biography is treated as an understanding of life. The most important features of philosophical biography in Russian thinkers’ interpretation are as follows: the focus on comprehension of life-drama, in which thoughts and senses act as personal events; the demand of spiritual affinity as a condition for understanding; and the creation of spiritual image as the main task of biography.
13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Mohd Faizal Musa Javanese Sufism and Prophetic Literature
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Part of the “Islamic literature” furore in Indonesia is the discourse of “Prophetic Literature,” founded by Abdul Hadi W.M. The background of “PropheticLiterature” is Sufism. Other ingredients that formulated “Prophetic Literature” are mysticism, “Javanese Sufism” and perennial philosophies concerned withspiritual experience and human effort to gain the love of God. The ambitious objective of “Prophetic Literature” is to form a healthy environment in society throughthe purification of the souls of the readers. It also aims to energize the spirit of the colonized people in the East through promoting good deeds and kindness whilst preventing corruption and wickedness. “Prophetic Literature” prioritized the human and re-positioned man as the Caliph of Allah. The fundamental and dominant theme of “Prophetic Literature” is monotheism. “Prophetic Literature” is not interested in any particular form, but it emphasizes traditional elements, such as the return to the “roots of local culture,” including “Javanese Sufism,” as it core sources. Similar to “Sufi literature,” the appearance of “Prophetic Literature” is shown through the use of symbols. Authors are measured by their ability to compose symbols, and to send hidden meanings in their works.
14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
I Made Gede Arimbawa Exploitation of Bali Traditional Symbols on Today’s Design
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Based on the views of Hindus in Bali, the application of ornaments in the form of Balinese traditional symbols should follow the rules of the prevailing tradition.The symbols are created to show the cosmology and philosophy based on the teachings of Hinduism as indigenous in Bali and function as a means of a sacred ritual. But in reality the designers in Bali often exploit the symbols by “mutilating” and applying them to undue places, motivated by a desire to create a product or environment characterized by Balinese ethnicity. For example, Acintya relief, Karang Bhoma, Garuda Wisnu and others are applied as façade decorations for shops and banks, or they are created in the form of a statue to decorate crossroads, or used for decoration of the human body in the form of a tattoo and so forth. Seen from a semiotic approach, these actions can damage the structure of the meaning of symbols, because they bring about the interruption of the established relations of the signifier and signified and they form symbol fragments with unclear relations to meaning. Similarly, in today’s designs stamped with such decoration, they appear awkward and meaningless. From such behaviour, that practice creates styles such as pastiche, parody, kitsch, camp and so forth.
15. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Nicolae Râmbu Iconostrophia of the Spirit
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Regarded from a different perspective, the same values appear somewhat reversed. This phenomenon was explained by the authors who, following OswaldSpengler, associated culture with space more strongly by resorting to the terminology of optics and, also, by analogies with certain optical phenomena. This essay goes on the same path. The reversed image of the values regarded through a certain “Lebensgefühl” represents an iconostrophia of the spirit.
16. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Isaac E. Ukpokolo Between Group Mind and Common Good: Interrogating the African Socio-Political Condition
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The paper is challenged with the seeming contradiction resulting from the prevalent conception of the group mind and common good in African and Westerncultures or societies. Many African scholars have theorized about the communalistic nature of African communities which leads to the flourishing of group consciousness as opposed to individualistic attitudes. This is often discussed against the background of the liberalism of Western societies which tend to elevate individual consciousness and self-realization over that of the group. With this picture in mind, one would expect the common good to flourish in the former more than the latter. Present African socio-political conditions examined against similar scenarios in the West makes it glaringly obvious that the exact opposite is the case. Being that the group mind principle needed for the attainment of the common good seems absent in contemporary African states, the paper therefore recommends that a critical self-examination is needed by the African states in order to develop a genuinely African group consciousness for the attainment of the common good.
17. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Anton Carpinschi, Bilakani Tonyeme Cultural Minorities and Intercultural Dialogue in the Dynamics of Globalization. African Participation
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The aim of this article is to demonstrate that globalization, as it proceeds today, will only lead to a clash of civilizations and to the destruction of the fragile cultural identities. This leads to folds of the cultural minorities and the seeking of their recognition that can be expressed through violence. For globalization to succeed in integrating its noble objective of all cultures, it must proceed by inclusion instead of being exclusive. Intercultural dialogue has a central role in such a globalization to achieve peace between cultures. In this dialogue, the community paradigm of African cultures can be used as a model for approaching any culture.
18. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Jacob Ale Aigbodioh Stigmatization in African Communalistic Societies and Habermas’ Theory of Rationality
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The phenomenon of widespread stigmatization of victims of deadly, or previously incurable, diseases in African traditional societies would appear to pragmatically contradict the humanistic values of communalism associated with those societies. However, the implied contradiction of the phenomenon, which borders on irrationality and injustice, seems amenable to a rational explanation when one considers the thick ontological underpinnings of African traditional communalism along with their epistemic significance. The justification of the proffered explanation, the paper avers, is made clearer when it is taken as a paradigm of Jurgen Habermas’ theory of (communicative) rationality and action. Against this background, the paper argues that such global social problemsas terrorism and internet scams may well be justifiable if Habermas’ strategic and contextual models of rationality and action are communicatively valid.
19. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Justina O. Ehiakhamen The Practice of Inheritance in Esan: the Place of the Female Child
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The act of discrimination against the female sex is an undeniable phenomenon in virtually all human societies, though the severity varies from one society to another. It is against this backdrop that this paper is aimed at exposing the inadequate nature of the primogeniture rule of inheritance towards the female, as practised by the Esan people. The paper tests the validity of the logic on which the disinheritance of females rests, and discovers that it is invalid as it violates such moral principles as the categorical imperative and utilitarianism, among others. It therefore advocates for possessive right for females for the sake of justice and equity.
20. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Nicolito A. Gianan Delving into the Ethical Dimension of Ubuntu Philosophy
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The article aims to delve into the ethical dimension of Ubuntu philosophy, which is an African philosophy that reverberates in other cultures and in various forms, thus exemplifying its universality and universalizability. In this dimension, it tries to re-examine the notion of ethics in relation to morals/morality, including “is” and “ought”, with reference to the human person. Moreover, Ubuntu philosophy is articulated and communicated in the maxim that is an essential component inthe lived experiences of the Bantu-speaking African community: “A person is a person through other persons.” With this, the article integrates some related European and Asian philosophies, considering the fact that Ubuntu philosophy endures as it is tenaciously upheld and edified alongside its implications.