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1. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2
Bernie D’Angelo Asher

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In recent times there have been increasing efforts at reinterpreting core CSR theories such as stakeholder theory with new perspectives as well as applying them to different contexts away from its Western masculinist connotations. This work seeks to add to these efforts by exploring the impacts that the African philosophical worldview of Afro-communitarianism has on small business stakeholder relationships. Specifically it discusses the kinds of relationships that owner/managers of small businesses, in adherence to Afro-communitarianism, maintain with their families, employees, local communities and competitors- all key stakeholders. The contention is that such ethics demand more extensive ethical responsibilities from owner/managers of small businesses than owner/managers motivated by traditional stakeholder theory with its Western masculinist undertones. It is hoped that this effort will add significant perspectives to stakeholder theory as well as having implications for both small and large business practice.

2. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2
Thomas G. Pittz, Philip G. Benson, Melissa Intindola, Manos Kalargiros

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Despite attention to the concerns of labor migration by public policy makers and scholars, the effects of international recruitment policies in developed nations on the economies of the developing world have been largely unaddressed by management literature. This work addresses that lacuna by combining hitherto separate streams of management scholarship with the fledgling fields of nation and employer branding to consider their synthesis in an international context. This combination introduces the possibility for evaluating the effects of recruitment practices on developing economies and creates space for future research regarding ethical international recruitment policies. We explore and discuss these issues from the perspective of potential employees in developing economies and offer suggestions to guide future research in this area.

3. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2
Debra Comer, Michael Schwartz

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Business ethics educators have been encouraged to cultivate students’ character, but have received meager instructions for doing so. Additionally, there has been insufficient focus on equipping students with the tools they need to foster their ethical development after completing our courses. In this paper, it is argued that the Jewish spiritual practice of Mussar, whose premise is that individuals can become better versions of themselves by repairing their character traits, can inform business ethics instruction. After presenting the tenets and historical background of Mussar, we provide specific information that will enable business ethics instructors to adapt its tools and techniques in order to put their students on a personalized path of lifelong character improvement.

4. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2
Maretno A. Harjoto

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Organizational theory argues that institutional social responsibility, which represents managers’ moral values, ethics, and norms (i.e. community, environment), and technical (strategic) social responsibility, which represents firms’ relationship with key stakeholders (i.e., employees, suppliers, consumers), influence corporate ethical behavior. We examine and compare the impacts of strengths and concerns of institutional and technical (strategic) social responsibilities on the likelihood of corporate fraud. Using a sample of 152 high-profile corporate fraud cases in the U.S. during the 2000-2010 period, we find that firms’ corporate social responsibility activities reduce the likelihood of corporate fraud. More importantly, our study finds that both institutional strengths and technical strengths reduce the likelihood of corporate fraud. Institutional concerns also increase the likelihood of corporate fraud and institutional responsibility plays a more significant role than technical responsibility. Our study supports the legitimacy theory of social responsibility and highlights the importance of moral management to reduce the likelihood of corporate fraud.

5. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2
Amy Klemm Verbos, Stephanie L. Black

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Benefit corporation legislation has rapidly disseminated in the United States. Its advocates claim it is a necessary corporate form to address the unique needs of for-profit social enterprises, despite many scholarly and legal practitioners who doubt the need for or wisdom of adopting this organizational form. Others suggest that the legislation is flawed and deficiencies should be addressed. After reviewing the present status of benefit corporation legislation, this article contributes to the discourse arguing that (1) benefit corporations are unnecessary under the law; (2) benefit corporation legislation does not enhance corporate law; (3) benefit corporation laws create unnecessary new legal risks for both traditional and benefit corporations, and their respective directors; and (4) third party certification in entity formation law is inappropriate.

6. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 2

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