Cover of The Journal of Philosophy
Already a subscriber? - Login here
Not yet a subscriber? - Subscribe here

Browse by:



Displaying: 1-20 of 12100 documents


1. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 6
Emanuel Viebahn The Lying-Misleading Distinction: A Commitment-Based Approach
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
The distinction between lying and mere misleading is commonly tied to the distinction between saying and conversationally implicating. Many definitions of lying are based on the idea that liars say something they believe to be false, while misleaders put forward a believed-false conversational implicature. The aim of this paper is to motivate, spell out, and defend an alternative approach, on which lying and misleading differ in terms of commitment: liars, but not misleaders, commit themselves to something they believe to be false. This approach entails that lying and misleading involve speech-acts of different force. While lying requires the committal speech-act of asserting, misleading involves the non-committal speech-act of suggesting. The approach leads to a broader definition of lying that can account for lies that are told while speaking non-literally or with the help of presuppositions, and it allows for a parallel definition of misleading, which so far is lacking in the debate.
2. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 6
William MacAskill, Aron Vallinder, Caspar Oesterheld, Carl Shulman, Johannes Treutlein The Evidentialist's Wager
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
Suppose that an altruistic agent who is uncertain between evidential and causal decision theory finds herself in a situation where these theories give conflicting verdicts. We argue that even if she has significantly higher credence in CDT, she should nevertheless act in accordance with EDT. First, we claim that the appropriate response to normative uncertainty is to hedge one's bets. That is, if the stakes are much higher on one theory than another, and the credences you assign to each of these theories are not very different, then it is appropriate to choose the option that performs best on the high-stakes theory. Second, we show that, given the assumption of altruism, the existence of correlated decision makers will increase the stakes for EDT but leave the stakes for CDT unaffected. Together these two claims imply that whenever there are sufficiently many correlated agents, the appropriate response is to act in accordance with EDT.
3. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 6
New Books
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
4. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 6
Call for Submissions: The Isaac Levi Prize
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
5. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 5
Bob Beddor, Simon Goldstein Mighty Knowledge
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
We often claim to know what might be—or probably is—the case. Modal knowledge along these lines creates a puzzle for information-sensitive semantics for epistemic modals. This paper develops a solution. We start with the idea that knowledge requires safe belief: a belief amounts to knowledge only if it could not easily have been held falsely. We then develop an interpretation of the modal operator in safety (could have) that allows it to non-trivially embed information-sensitive contents. The resulting theory avoids various paradoxes that arise from other accounts of modal knowledge. It also delivers plausible predictions about modal Gettier cases.
6. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 5
Giulia Felappi Empty Names, Presupposition Failure, and Metalinguistic Negation
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
When it comes to empty names, we seem to have reached very little consensus. Still, we all seem to agree, first, that our semantics should assign truth to (one reading of) negative singular existence statements in which an empty name occurs and, second, that names are used in such statements. The purpose of this paper is to show that ruling out that the names are mentioned is harder than it has been thought. I will present a new metalinguistic account for negative singular existence statements in which an empty name occurs, and I will show that the account can deal both with the objections to the traditional metalinguistic account and with other objections that seem to target my new proposal.
7. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 5
New Books: Anthologies
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
8. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 4
Frédérique de Vignemont A Minimal Sense of Here-ness
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
In this paper, I give an account of a hitherto neglected kind of ‘here’, which does not work as an intentional indexical. Instead, it automatically refers to the immediate perceptual environment of the subject’s body, which is known as peripersonal space. In between the self and the external world, there is something like a buffer zone, a place in which objects and events have a unique immediate significance for the subject because they may soon be in contact with her. I argue that seeing objects as being here in a minimal sense means seeing them in the place in which the perceptual system expects the world and the body to collide. I further argue that this minimal notion of here-content gives rise to a tactile sense of presence. It provides a unique experiential access to the reality of the seen object by making us aware of its ability to have an effect on us.
9. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 4
Jonathan Mitchell Self-Locating Content in Visual Experience and the "Here-Replacement" Account
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
According to the Self-Location Thesis, certain types of visual experiences have self-locating and so first-person (or de se), spatial contents. Such self-locating contents are typically specified in relational egocentric terms. So understood, visual experiences provide support for the claim that there is a kind of self-consciousness found in experiential states. This paper critically examines the Self-Location Thesis with respect to dynamic-reflexive visual experiences, which involve the movement of an object toward the location of the perceiving subject. The main aim of this paper is to offer an alternative interpretation of these cases which resists attributing them self-locating content, arguing for a replacement of the de se component with a non-conceptual equivalent of the indexical ‘here’ (the h-replacement account). In its final section, the paper also considers an extension of the h-replacement account to cases of visual kinesthesis.
comments and criticism
10. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 4
Adam Marushak Fallibilism and Consequence
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
Alex Worsnip argues in favor of what he describes as a particularly robust version of fallibilism: subjects can sometimes know things that are, for them, possibly false (in the epistemic sense of ‘possible’). My aim in this paper is to show that Worsnip’s argument is inconclusive for a surprising reason: the existence of possibly false knowledge turns on how we ought to model entailment or consequence relations among sentences in natural language. Since it is an open question how we ought to think about consequence in natural language, it is an open question whether there is possibly false knowledge. I close with some reflections on the relation between possibly false knowledge and fallibilism. I argue that there is no straightforward way to use linguistic data about natural language epistemic modals to either verify or refute the fallibilist thesis.
11. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 4
New Books: Anthologies
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
12. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 4
Call for Submissions: The Isaac Levi Prize
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
the isaac levi prize 2020
13. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 3
Andrew Bollhagen Hempel’s Raven Revisited
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
The paper takes a novel approach to a classic problem—Hempel’s Raven Paradox. A standard approach to it supposes the solution to consist in bringing our inductive logic into “reflective equilibrium” with our intuitive judgements about which inductive inferences we should license. This approach leaves the intuitions as a kind of black box and takes it on faith that, whatever the structure of the intuitions inside that box might be, it is one for which we can construct an isomorphic formal edifice, a system of inductive logic. By popping open the box we can see whether that faith is misplaced. I aim, therefore, to characterize our pre-theoretical, intuitive understanding of generalizations like “ravens are black” and argue that, intuitively, we take them to mean, for instance: “ravens are black by some indeterminate yet characteristic means.” I motivate and explicate this formulation and bring it to bear on Hempel’s Problem.
14. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 3
Jacob Berger Quality-Space Functionalism about Color
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
I motivate and defend a previously underdeveloped functionalist account of the metaphysics of color, a view that I call ‘quality-space functionalism’ about color. Although other theorists have proposed varieties of color functionalism, this view differs from such accounts insofar as it identifies and individuates colors by their relative locations within a particular kind of so-called ‘quality space’ that reflects creatures’ capacities to discriminate visually among stimuli. My arguments for this view of color are abductive: I propose that quality-space functionalism best captures our commonsense conception of color, fits with many experimental findings, coheres with the phenomenology of color experience, and avoids many issues for standard theories of color such as color physicalism and color relationalism.
book reviews
15. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 3
Anna Mahtani Scott Sturgeon: The Rational Mind
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
16. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 2
Isaac Wilhelm The Counteridentical Account of Explanatory Identities
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
Many explanations rely on identity facts. In this paper, I propose an account of how identity facts explain: roughly, the fact that A is identical to B explains another fact whenever that other fact depends, counterfactually, on A being identical to B. As I show, this account has many virtues. It avoids several problems facing accounts of explanatory identities, and when precisified using structural equations, it can be used to defend interventionist accounts of causation against an objection.
17. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 2
Daniel Muñoz The Rejection of Consequentializing
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
Consequentialists say we may always promote the good. Deontologists object: not if that means killing one to save five. “Consequentializers” reply: this act is wrong, but it is not for the best, since killing is worse than letting die. I argue that this reply undercuts the “compellingness” of consequentialism, which comes from an outcome-based view of action that collapses the distinction between killing and letting die.
comments and criticism
18. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 2
Nathan Howard Primary Reasons as Normative Reasons
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
I argue that Davidson’s conception of motivating reasons as belief-desire pairs suggests a model of normative reasons for action that is superior to the orthodox conception according to which normative reasons are propositions, facts, or the truth-makers of such facts.
19. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 2
Call for Submissions: The Isaac Levi Prize
view |  rights & permissions | cited by
20. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 118 > Issue: 1
Jessica Keiser On Meaning without Use
abstract | view |  rights & permissions | cited by
This paper defends the use-based metasemantic project against the problem of meaning without use, which allegedly shows the predictions of use-based metasemantic accounts to be indeterminate with respect to unusably long or complex expressions. This criticism is commonly taken to be decisive, prompting various retreats and contributing to the project’s eventual decline. Using metasemantic conventionalism as a case study, I argue the following: either such expressions do not belong to used languages or their meanings are uniquely determined by use. Thus, the alleged problem of meaning without use offers no challenge to the use-based metasemantic project generally, nor to conventionalism in particular.