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1. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
John Dadosky Searching for Wisdom: Towards a Systematic Integration of Sophiology into Theology
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Sophiology has come to the fore over the past century due in large part to the Russian sophiologists and the rise of feminist hermeneutics. Nevertheless, sophiology remains suspect in many circles due to a lack of clarity as to the status Sophia, on the one hand, and a resistance to it due to its challenge to ‘traditional’ images of God as male, on the other hand. This article takes the theological ambiguities surrounding the ontological status of Sophia, the Wisdom of God, as a context for approaching a systematic clarification that may assist a broader reception of sophiology into mainstream theology.
2. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
M. V. Dougherty Plagiarism in the Sacred Sciences: Three Impediments to Institutional Reform
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This article diagnoses the problem of plagiarism in academic books and articles in the disciplines of philosophy and theology. It identifies three impediments to institutional reform. They are: (1) a misplaced desire to preserve personal and institutional reputations; (2) a failure to recognize that attribution in academic writing admits of degrees; and (3) a disproportionate emphasis on the so-called “intention to plagiarize.” A detailed case study provides an illustration of the need for institutional reform in the post-publication processes in the disciplines of philosophy and theology.
3. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Octavian Gabor Responses to Divine Communication: Oedipus and Socrates
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Sophocles’s Oedipus Tyrannus shows that humans' problems do not appear when they listen to the gods, but when they listen to themselves imagining that they follow the gods. Instead of placing themselves in the service of the god, as Socrates does in Plato’s Apology, they only think that they follow the divinity, while they actually act according to their own understanding. If Sophocles’s play is a synopsis of this danger, Plato’s dialogue proposes a different attitude before divinity: instead of interpreting the gods and acting on this interpretation, you would need to enter into their service by studying the meaning of their communication.
4. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mark Glouberman His Royal I-ness: The Function of God in the Bible
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The theology of the (Hebrew) Bible, as set out in the Torah’s foundational parts, answers the question “What am I?” not the question “Why is there a world?” So the principle that the Bible’s deity, God, represents, the principle of a category of being not recognized in the pagan thinking whose basic elements Greek philosophy systematizes, first enters “In the day that . . . the Lord God formed [the] man,” not “In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth.” The admonition to place God first doesn’t therefore exclude the impersonal principles of being with which the other gods are associated, only denies their adequacy to making sense of your being and of mine, of his being and of hers.
5. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Jeff Grupp Why God Did Not Choose All Souls: New Scriptural Evidence
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An analysis of Scripture uncovers a new model of God’s election and predestination of souls, which fits under the umbrella of the Calvinist theologies, but where this model involves an answer to the long-standing question of why God chose some, rather than all. It will be explored how before souls were elected (or condemned), God looked at them and knew them in a pre-election state, which God used to predestine each soul in physical reality. This analysis reveals why it could be no other way but where God only would choose some, rather than all souls during the physical embodiment stage of the soul, and the vexing centuries-old Calvinist question of why God elected some not all has an answer.
6. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Dennis L. Sansom The Perichoresis of the Trinity: Overcoming the Moral Gap and the Theological Foundations of Christian Ethics
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According to John Hare, a “moral gap” exists between the authority of a moral demand and our inability to do the moral demand. Only the authority of the moral demander can bridge the gap, but that requires the demander experience the obligations of the demand. Christian ethics has a way to explain how to bridge of the gap. Through the doctrine of the perichoresis of triune relationships, we see how the mutual indwelling of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit incorporates the human spirit into the inner-work of the triune relations, and thereby closes the moral gap.
7. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Terence Sweeney Ways to God: William Desmond’s Recapitulation of Thomas Aquinas’s Five Ways
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In this article, I explore how William Desmond recovers Thomas Aquinas's Five Ways by offering a new way for considering the relation of God to being. I do so in the context of Charles Taylor’s reflections on the immanent frame and the possibility of thinking towards God in the secular age. Desmond renews Aquinas proofs by seeing in them a hermeneutic openness to God. Considering each of Aquinas’s five ways through the lens of Desmond’s philosophy, I argue that each proof reveals God’s ways of being within being as a path to recovering an awareness of God’s presence in the world.
8. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Augusto Trujillo Werner Possible Thomistic Response to Hume’s Law and to Moore’s Open-Question Argument
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This article concerns Aquinas’s practical doctrine on two philosophical difficulties underlying much contemporary ethical debate. One is Hume’s Is-ought thesis and the other is its radical consequence, Moore’s Open-question argument. These ethical paradoxes appear to have their roots in epistemological scepticism and in a deficient anthropology. Possible response to them can be found in that Aquinas’s human intellect (essentially theoretical and practical at the same time) naturally performs three main operations: 1º) To apprehend the intellecta and universal notions ens, verum and bonum. 2º) To formulate the first theoretical and practical principles. 3º) To order that the intellectum and universal good be done and the opposite avoided. Thomistic philosophical response to both predicaments will not be exclusively ethical, but will harmonically embrace ontology, anthropology and epistemology.
9. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Bernard J. Verkamp Karl Rahner and Religious Agnosticism
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Back in the early 1960s, Karl Rahner acknowledged that ‘religious agnosticism’ (‘religiöse Agnostizismus’) did have “some truth” in it [meint etwas Richtiges] (Rahner and Vorgrimler, Kleines Theologisches Wörterbuch, 13; Theological Dictionary, 16). On the Hegelian assumption that a thing being defined involves as much what it is not, as what it is, this paper will explore in what sense Rahner thought that religious agnosticism does contain an element of truth, by contrasting his interpretation of its component parts to that of the nineteenth century agnostic trio of Herbert Spencer, Thomas H. Huxley, and John Tyndall.
10. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Rafał Kazimierz Wilk Im-Mortal Man: A Comparison of the Concept in Thomism and Evolutionism
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The topics related to the creation of man and to the death of human being are, undoubtedly, the most interesting issues facing the human mind. In explaining them, Christian Philosophy is strongly supported by the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, but there is also an attempt of explanation with referring to the process of evolution. In this article we present such an attitude elaborated by Polish Philosopher Fr. Tadeusz S. Wojciechowski. According to him the resurrection of Human Body takes place in the moment of one’s death. The death is the highest degree of biological evolution in which Man reaches the eternal life. Achieving the aim of biological evolution is not equal with the reaching spiritual evolution; at least not in case of every human being. Thus, the Purgatory helps to accomplish the task of spiritual self-fulfillment, unless one’s life led him to the eternal condemnation.
11. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
James B. South Editor's Page
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rahner papers
12. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Robert L. Masson Origins of the Karl Rahner Society
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This article describes the origin in 1991 of the Karl Rahner Society, which meets every year within the annual convention of the Catholic Theological Society of America. The Rahner Society’s origins include the role of William M. Thompson-Uberuaga as Founding Coordinator, the contributions of the earliest members of the Coordinating Committee, and the relation between the KRS and the CTSA. Society members found a vehicle for publication in the Marquette University journal Philosophy & Theology whose founding editor was Andrew Tallon. The journal continues to publish the society’s “Rahner Papers” annually.
13. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mark F. Fischer The Karl Rahner Society in the Twenty-First Century (1998–2019)
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This essay traces the history of the Karl Rahner Society between the years 1998 and 2019. It lists the achievements of the society’s coordinators, many of the books and articles about Rahner published by members of the society, and the role played in the society by Presidents of the Catholic Theological Society of America. The essay also identifies three persistent themes of the society: Rahner and his contemporaries, Rahner and the Catholic Church, and Rahner and ecumenism.
14. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mark F. Fischer Karl Rahner’s Work on the Assumption of Mary into Heaven
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Karl Rahner completed his in 1951 but did not receive permission to publish it from his Jesuit superiors. The work appeared in 2004, twenty years after Rahner’s death. This essay examines his work on the Assumption and the censors’ objections. Rahner’s publication of 1947, “On the Theology of Death,” was appended to the Marian treatise as an “excursus” but laid the foundation for the later work. Rahner interpreted the Assumption as an anticipation of the resurrection of the dead. This essay focuses on three speculations by Rahner: on the relation of the soul to the body, on the maturation of the soul after death, and on the final resurrection as the world’s transformation. The censors criticized Rahner’s theology of death as too speculative and his Mariology as too minimal. Yet ’s treatment of Mary as a sign of hope until the second coming vindicated Rahner.
15. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Stanislau Paulau, Thomas F. O'Meara A Search for Traces: Karl Rahner in the USSR
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This article describes the presence of Karl Rahner in philosophical, theological, and propagandistic works published in the Soviet Union or published outside the USSR and distributed within it. Some references to Rahner appeared in self-published works without the approval of Soviet censors. These included the works of Orthodox theologians such as Sergej Želudkov and Alexander Men’. Other references to Rahner appeared in anti-religious propaganda and in works by Marxist-Leninist philosophers such as Bronislavas Juozas Kuzmickas. By 1992, the year following the collapse of the USSR, Rahner began to receive a more favorable reception in the writing of philosophers such as Elena B. Timerman.
16. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Richard Penaskovic Karl Rahner at Vatican II: An Appreciation
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Karl Rahner had a powerful influence on Vatican II for four well-known reasons: his fluency in Latin, his intellectual brilliance, his strenuous work ethic, and his wide knowledge of Catholic theology. Rahner’s contribution as a peritus was surpassed only by Gérard Philips and Yves Congar, all three of whom advised the key conciliar fathers such as Cardinals Suenens, König, and Frings. This essay traces the influence of Rahner on the four Vatican II Constitutions, Sacrosanctum Concilium, Lumen Gentium, Dei Verbum, and Gaudium et Spes. It concludes with a reflection on the pastoral care that infused his work.
17. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mark F. Fischer Rahner Papers Editor's Page
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18. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1/2
David Clark Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will: A Christian/Stoic Resolution
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Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism (fate). This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by necessity—but rather by voluntary collaboration between humanity and the Logos—that the Creation arrives at its determinate end.
19. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1/2
Casey Spinks Thinking Through the Cross: On Luther’s Heidelberg Disputation and Its Contributions to Philosophy
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Martin Luther has given little explicit influence on philosophy, and in 1950 Jaroslav Pelikan called for further work into investigating a ‘Lutheran philosophy.’ The beginning of this work lies in Luther’s Heidelberg Disputation, in which he attacks the method of scholasticism and counters with the method of truly Christian theology, a theologia crucis. Such counter, this article argues, entails a shift in Christian philosophizing, a shift that sharply distinguishes between God and man and yet, through this distinction, as Luther asserts, allows one to “call the thing what it actually is”—and thus leads to a truly Christian philosophy.
20. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1/2
Nahum Brown The Logic of the Secret in Hegel and Derrida
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The aim of this article is to contrast Hegelian insights about the secret with Derrida’s literary account of the secret in the story of Abraham. Derrida outlines two kinds of secret in “Literature in Secret,” one revealable and the other apophatic. I propose that the first kind of secret is Hegelian in nature because a productive concept of contradiction underlies it. On the other hand, the second kind of secret is Derridean because it withdraws from all revelation. Through an analysis of the role of contradiction in Hegel’s Logic and Derrida’s distinction between revealable and unrevealable secrets, I aim to explore the logical and structural components of the concept of the secret.