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1. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Роман Кисельов Orcid-ID
Roman Kyselov
Reasoning about Plagiarism in Europe before Jacob Thomasius
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This paper provides an overview of the early considerations regarding the phenomenon of plagiarism – from Greco-Roman antiquity to the time when a thorough study examining literary theft in its textual, legal, and moral manifestations was printed, i. e. “Philosophical Dissertation on Literary Plagiarism” (1673) by Jacob Thomasius. Although the issue of plagiarism was very vital in ancient times, all the oldest considerations concerning the appropriation of other people’s texts were essentially pragmatic moves or reactions rather than purposeful theoretical interpretations of the subject. However, in addition to the situational grounds of the accusation, they can reveal certain principles that, according to estimations of the time, could prevent or refute allegations of plagiarism. It was enough if the author stated, albeit generally but clearly, that the fragments of other people’s texts, whether altered or not, were used. It was also acceptable if the reader believed that the author considered his borrowings recognizable to educated readers. Another reason for the elimination of possible accusations was the factor of competition – the author’s desire to adapt the achievements of another cultural environment in his own one, significantly improving them. The medieval and early modern materials generally testify to the relevance of ancient views and reveal some new problems. This is, in particular, the incompatibility of new more formalized ideas about authorship and traditional educational practices, which encouraged the uncontrolled use of others’ texts. Some authors also emphasized that plagiarism was an obstacle to the development of science. The paper ends with examples that show how European ideas about the rules of using others’ writings may help interpret the writing methods of the early modern Ukrainian authors, including philosophers.
2. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анна Лактіонова Orcid-ID
Anna Laktionova
Quine, Goodman, Putnam: the Harvard Philosophical School
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This article offers formal and doctrinal reasons that prove the existence of the "Harvard Philosophical School" as a real historico-philosophical phenomenon. The author includes Willard Van Orman Quine, Nelson Goodman, and Hilary Putnam in this school. The aim of this article is to compare the conceptualism, relativism and anti-realism of Quine, Goodman and Pantem, on the basis of (neo)pragmatic tendencies in their philosophical studies. All these philosophers were professors at Harvard University; in addition, Quine was a teacher of Goodman and Putnam, Goodman was a teacher of Putnam. Quine, Goodman, and Putnam, each in his own specific pragmatic way, stood on the positions of relativism, anti-realism, conceptualism, and tried to separate themselves from “cultural relativism”. Common touchstone concepts and tendencies in particular in their philosophical investigations are: conceptual scheme, indeterminacy of translation, internal criteria, ontological relativity and others. The obvious analogy between Quine's standards of similarity, Goodman's standards of correctness, and standards for Putnam's conceptual schemes. The role played in their doctrines by the ideas of William James, who also taught at Harvard, at least hypothetically allows us to expand the boundaries of this school.
3. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Ołena Łucyszyna Orcid-ID
Олена Луцишина
Поняття мовної конвенції (samaya, saṃketa) в індійській думці
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Linguistic convention (samaya/saṃketa) is one of the central notions of Indian philosophy of language. I present a new classification of traditions of Indian thought based on their view of linguistic convention. This classification is to be verified and expanded in further studies. 1) Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, Buddhism, and later classical Yoga of the Tattvavaiśāradī accept samaya/saṃketa as an agreement initiating the relationship between words and their previously unrelated meanings. 2) Bhartṛhari the Grammarian and the continuators of his thought acknowledge samaya/saṃketa as the established usage of words that is rooted in the natural relationship between words and their meanings; the convention manifests (makes known) the relationship. This view was probably also shared by Mīmāṃsakas and Advaitins. 3) Classical Yoga of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya and probably also earlier Grammar thought of the Mahābhāṣya accept linguistic convention as the established usage of words, but this usage, though having neither a beginning nor an end, is not based on any natural and necessary word–meaning relationship. In this view, linguistic convention not only manifests the word–meaning relationship but also keeps it in existence. Finally, I also explain why the same Sanskrit term samaya/saṃketa was applied to the different ways of understanding linguistic convention. I explain this through the common aspects of all three kinds of samaya/saṃketa. The first aspect is the content of all these kinds of samaya/saṃketa. Irrespective of how linguistic convention is understood, its content is the same: “such and such a word has such and such a meaning”. The second aspect is the crucial role of linguistic convention in language acquisition, communication, and transmission.
4. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анастасія Стрелкова Orcid-ID
Anastasia Strelkova
The Concept of «suffering» in Buddhism: Ontological Problematics
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In this paper the philosophical problematics of the ontological dimension of suffering in the Buddhist philosophy is raised. Many modern scholars are inclined to think that a more adequate translation for the Sanskrit term duḥkha is “unsatisfactoriness”. However, from the material presented in the article it follows that this rendering does not underlie the sense of the notion of duḥkha when it is examined in the ontological plane, and thus the traditional translation “suffering” in this sense remains more adequate. It is also shown that the etymology of the Sanskrit term duḥkha as a «improperly installed» axle of the wheel of a cart has strong connotations with the metaphor of the wheel and the symbol of swastika in the Buddhist cultural tradition (wheel of being, three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma etc.). In this paper the main causes of suffering (self, body, ignorance, desire and other afflictions) exposed in Buddhist texts and scholarship are revised, and on the example of the Cūḷasuññata-sutta it is demonstrated that the real final cause of suffering in the Early Buddhism is our body and not our “self” and ignorance. While in the Mahayana Buddhism based on the philosophy of emptiness and the principle of nonduality, the dichotomy of soul and body is removed, the attainment of nirvana becomes possible in this body and the real cause and source of suffering becomes the ignorance. On the other hand, the paper argues that just the ontological view on the problem of suffering (under the angle of the principle of nonduality) provides us with understanding of the fact that the suffering can be overcome despite its indestructible ontological status.

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5. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Євгенія Буцикіна Orcid-ID
Yevheniia Butsykina
Discourse on the Philosophical and Ethical Method of Aristotle. Karbowski, J. (2019). Aristotle’s Method in Ethics: Philosophy in Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
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6. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Олена Калантарова Orcid-ID
Олена Калантарова
Буддійська філософія в Індії: від онтології абгідгарми до епістемології праманавади. Westerhoff, J. (2018). The Golden Age of Indian Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press
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7. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Dmytro Sepetyi Orcid-ID
Дмитро Сепетий
Проблема свободи волі: історико-філософські сюжети в аналітичній перспективі. Hausmannn, M., & Noller, J. (Eds.). (2021). Free Will. Historical and Analytic Perspectives. Cham: Springer; Palgrave Macmillan
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8. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Всеволод Кузнецов Orcid-ID
Vsevolod Kuznetsov
Commenting as a Genre. Tehilim. (2020). Tehilim - Psalms. Commentary by Rabbi Shimshon Raphael Hirsch (Vol. 1-2). Kyiv: Duh i Litera.
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9. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Олег Хома Orcid-ID
Oleg Khoma
What is a Historian of Philosophy Looking For? Marion, J.-L. (2021). Questions cartésiennes III: Descartes sous le masque du cartésianisme. Paris: PUF
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10. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анатолій Єрмоленко, Orcid-ID Всеволод Хома, Orcid-ID Ілля Давіденко, Orcid-ID Ксенія Мирошник Orcid-ID
Anatoliy Yermolenko
German Philosophy in the Ukrainian Context (70-80s, 20th century). Part I
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Interview of Vsevolod Khoma, Illia Davidenko and Kseniia Myroshnyk with Anatoliy Yermolenko.