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1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Jiang Sun Conceptual History and History Textbooks
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2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Gongzhong Li From Society to Shehui: The Early Configuration of a Basic Concept in Modern China
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As a traditional term used in ancient Chinese, shiehwui社會 mainly implied the gatherings and meetings related to folk festivals for the worship of and making offerings to shie社, the gods of soil. The manifestation of shiehwui frequently was the target of condescension or outright condemnation from the government or Confucian elites. During the early dissemination of the western concept of society into China, one factor that facilitated its entry was the Christian missionaries’ knowledge of traditional Chinese shie and hwui會, especially the secret societies, which they applied to their translations from English into Chinese. When the modern concept of shakai (written as 社會, the same Chinese characters), formulated in Japan, was imported into Chinese at the turn of the 20th century, it became blended with the old word of shiehwui, and found a connection to the daily life experience of the lower classes in traditional China. As a result, the new concept of shehui in modern China possesses two kinds of connotations. On the one hand, it points toward the new direction of historical changes. On the other hand, it still retains the associations of condescension, dissatisfaction and anxiety that inform the perspective of the ruling class toward this term.
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3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Dongmu Li On the Term Guominxing (National Character): Its Current Status, Etymology and Related Issues in the History of Modern Chinese and Japanese Thought
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The term guominxing (国民性, national character) is undoubtedly an important term in both the history of modern thought and the history of modern vocabulary. However, it seems that the term has never been specifically explored as an object of study in the field of lexical history whereas in the field of intellectual history, the emphasis has often been on the ideas represented by the term as opposed to the term itself, which is in fact marginalised. This article focuses on the Chinese word guominxing, examining both the process of its production and dissemination as well as its current usage, in order to reveal its significance for the history of modern intellectual exchanges between China and Japan and the history of modern Chinese thought.
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4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Liwei Chen A Study of the Linguistic and Conceptual Development of Diguo zhuyi (Imperialism)
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This article first describes how the classical Chinese word diguo 帝国 was used in Japan as a translation of the Dutch language and thus into English, and then looks at the establishment and use of the term Diguo zhuyi (imperialism) in Japan. Finally, it describes how the Chinese language media in Japan, the Qingyi Bao, was quickly converted into a Chinese concept by translating the Japanese newspaper.
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5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Tianna Xu Liu Shipei’s Concept of Class
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This paper aims to discuss the concept of class in the works of Liu Shipei, a Chinese revolutionary intellectual. When discussing the ethnic revolution of Manchuria, Liu first included class in the description of Chinese system, ethics and Chinese society. After he crossed to Japan and accepted the anarchist revolutionary ideas of hardliners, he used class as a broad synonym for hierarchical society and various inequalities. After understanding and recognizing the Marxist class struggle thought, Liu turned his attention to China. Liu started from the issue of Chinese people’s livelihood to find the subject and object of China’s anarchic class revolution. Class became the concept carrier of his narration of class revolution, and its semantic domain was further expanded. Through the analysis, we can see that Liu’s understanding and use of the concept of class is closely related to his revolutionary ideas, and changes accordingly.
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6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Longhu Cao The Discussion of Ziben zhuyi (capitalism) in China’s Debate on Socialism (1920-1921)
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The spread of “capitalism” from West to East not only brought knowledge of an economic model but also offered nations a new path for development. This expansion was met by the rise of the socialist revolutionary movement, which aimed to overthrow the capitalist political and economic system. This article examines the concept of “capitalism” in the context of the debate on socialism. By studying the elaborations of Ziben zhuyi (capitalism) by its proponents and opponents, as well as the debate-related expressions proposed by later scholars in different contexts, this study reflects on the politicization of “capitalism”, the complexity of its meaning, and the degree of political ideology in its implementation. Based on the analysis of relevant papers on the debate, it concludes that (1) as a highly politicized concept, “capitalism” reflects intellectuals’ assumptions regarding China’s future and the evolution of its political ideologies; (2) “capitalism” has a complicated conceptual connotation, and it is necessary to consider its many aspects to present the full picture of what people think about it; and (3) the degree of capitalist ideology varies in different periods and contexts.
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7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Hongjun Liu Scholarly Study of Hong (Rainbow) in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
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This paper focuses on how Chinese intellectuals discussed and researched rainbows in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty. Many of them considered the rainbow as a phenomenon that occurred under certain conditions of sunshine and raindrops, which could be described with terms related to qi (气) of yin/yang (阴/阳). Some of them had the knowledge of duplicating rainbows by “spraying water opposite to the sun”. There were also popular conceptions that rainbow was a sign of salaciousness and rainbow could siphon water, both of which had a long history in Chinese context. Scholars also discussed other phenomena similar to rainbow such as solar halo, lunar halo, parhelion and parselene. Those discussions were not held in wider society, yet they were the sign of how Chinese intellectuals rationalized their research into natural philosophy.
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8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Jianhua Wang The Latinxua Sin Wenz Movement in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region of China: Centred on Winter schools in Yan’an County
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In October 1940, the government of the Shaanxi-Ganjiang-Ningxia Border Region used Yan’an County as the center for trying out the Latinxua Sin Wenz Movement for winter schools. It went through three stages: experimentation, promotion, and reformation. Faced with insurmountable difficulties, the Education Department quietly terminated the project in 1943. The foremost reason why the Communist Party promoted this project was to remove the obstacle posed by Chinese characters for eliminating illiteracy. Despite problems such as ignorance of the officials, uncultured teachers, resistance from intellectuals, subjective and unrealistic beliefs, the Latinxua Sin Wenz Movement in border regions of China could not be ignored since it brought out the tension between popular culture and nationalism.
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9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Haizhou Wang The Political Phenomenology of Banbiantian (Half the Sky): Reconstruction of Women’s Status and Role in New China
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The proclamation Banbiantian (半边天 Half the Sky), which was proposed during the Mao era, is a vivid and straightforward appellation of women in new China that has gained popularity in national and folk discourses over the past seven decades. This article disassembles this term into three elements — quotation marks, Banbian (半边 Half), and tian (天 Sky) — to conduct a political phenomenological analysis. By exploring and sorting reports related to Banbiantian in Renmin ribao, this article reflects on changes in relation to status and role of women in the Mao era on the basis of three findings. Firstly, the quotation marks make Banbiantian a symbol of women’s actual experience and ideal image while playing a role in enhancement and guidance. Secondly, Banbian indicates the equal ratio of men and women and symbolizes the dynamic adjustment in determining equal rights, demonstrating equal capabilities, and improving equal status. Thirdly, tian is the scope of women’s liberation. Through women’s participation in public labor and political activities, coupled with balanced national and regional coordination, its scope continues to expand, extending from the family to society and the country.
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10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Guowei Shen Modern Reorganization and Language Contact of the Chinese Vocabulary System
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After entering the 20th century, great changes have taken place in the Chinese language, especially in terms of vocabulary. This change is not a simple increase in the number of words, but reflects a paradigm shift. The change involves not only nouns, but also a large number of verbs and adjectives, which this article calls “modern reconstruction of vocabulary system”. This article argues that the realization of scientific narration based on the consistency of words and texts is the fundamental motivation of language modernization; the reconstruction of Chinese vocabulary system can be basically completed in a short period of time, mainly due to the language contact within the cultural circle of Chinese characters in East Asia, which is also an important driving force for the rapid two character transformation of Chinese vocabulary. This paper gives a bird’s-eye view of the nature, new concepts and new forms of lexicalization, especially the interaction between Chinese and Japanese vocabulary.
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11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Xi Peng The Co-construction of Modern Sino-Japanese Knowledge Systems from Eastern Learning
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Eastern Learning (Dongxue 东学), which is an important part of modern new learning, refers to the Western natural science and socio-political thought that was assimilated by Japan from the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century. From the end of Ming Dynasty to the period before and after the revolution of 1911, China’s intake of new learning went through four stages. In the first three stages, a large number of Western books translated into Chinese were also introduced into Japan, which became the basic literature and language medium of Japanese Dutch studies, English Studies and later the whole foreign studies. At the beginning of the 20th century, exiles, students studying in Japan and Japanese teachers introduced Eastern Learning into China, which had a profound impact on China’s modernization process. Eastern Learning is a new learning system with East Asian characteristics constructed by China and Japan in the process of Western Learning (Xixue 西学) spreading to the East.
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12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Fengyang Zhang The Linguistic Approach in the Study of Modernity: Political Interpretation on the Methodology of Koselleck’s Begriffsgeshichte
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The study of German Begriffsgeschichte (conceptual history) by scholars such as Koselleck focuses on historiography, but its basic hypotheses are highly philosophical. One of its tasks is to explore modernity from the perspective of language, hence can be understood as the “linguistic approach” in the study of modernity. As for the origin of the theory, the conceptual evolution of Verzeitlichung (temporalization), Demokratisierung (democratization), Politisierung (politicization), and Ideologisierbarkeit (ideologicalization) proposed by Koselleck was not only largely affected by Gadamer’s hermeneutics and Heidegger’s existential phenomenology but also deeply influenced by Carl Schmitt’s political philosophy. In Koselleck’s view, conceptual upheaval in the revolutionary era from 1750 to 1850 was, essentially, a semantic struggle in which old and new forces competed fiercely.
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13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Siyu Chen A Pilgrimage to Authenticity—A Study of China’s Van Goghs
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This study offers a close reading of China’s Van Goghs, a documentary that tells the personal story of Zhao Xiaoyong, a painter-worker making his living by replicating masterpieces in a Chinese art village. Taking the cinematic representation of Zhao’s pilgrimage as a starting point, this study explores how the meaning of authenticity is negotiated through the interplay between aesthetic value and market value in the global flow of cultural products. Through a cross-disciplinary exchange between film, tourism, urban studies and creative labor studies, this study investigates the on-screen portrayal of places, people and power relations as a means to investigate the spatial, social and political implications of Zhao’s journey. Situating the protagonist’s quest for authenticity in Shenzhen’s transition from a labor-intensive economy to a knowledge-based economy, this study sheds light on the intersection between identity, mobility, and creativity at the time of capitalization, urbanization and globalization.
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14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Carlo Alvaro Orcid-ID God and Kant’s Suicide Maxim
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Kant’s argument against suicide is widely dismissed by scholars and often avoided by teachers because it is deemed inconsistent with Kant’s moral philosophy. This paper attempts to show a way to make sense of Kant’s injunction against suicide that is consistent with his moral system. One of the strategies adopted in order to accomplish my goal is a de-secularization of Kant’s ethics. I argue that all actions of self-killing (or suicide) are morally impermissible because they are inconsistent with God’s established nature and order. It is argued that the existence of God as the locus of moral value and duty in Kant’s moral system, and not belief in God, can explain the consistency of Kant’s injunction against suicide. A synergistic view is offered, which rests on three arguments: First, suicide goes against God’s authority. Second, suicide is inconsistent with our self-perpetuating nature. Third, suicide goes against the rational will.
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15. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Janez Strehovec Orcid-ID Art State, Art Activism and Expanded Concept of Art
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Contemporary post-aesthetic art implies an expanded concept of the work of art that also includes political functions. Beuys’s concept of social sculpture and Marcuse’s idea of society as a work of art can be complemented by Abreu’s project of a musical orchestra as a social ideal (the Venezuelan example of the music and education project El Sistema) and the Neue Slowenische Kunst transnational state formed from the core of art. These concepts are close to the views of Hakim Bey (Temporary Autonomous Zone), with D’Annunzio also touching upon them with his State of Fiume (1919–1920), for which he wrote the constitution and defined music as its central governing principle. Although the art state is a utopian project, art can serve a variety of emancipatory functions even in the dystopian present to intervene in and change the political. In this article, we also discuss the case of art activism in Slovenia, where culture (with many engaged artists) has become a central part of civil society oriented towards social change. Art activism contributes to an expanded concept of the political, which includes new subjects and new forms of antagonisms. Likewise, such repurposing of art emphasises its role in research.
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16. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Seungbae Park Cultural Relativism vs. Cultural Absolutism
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I defend cultural relativism against the following objections: (i) The analogy between motion and morality is flawed. (ii) Cultural relativism has greater potential to be harmful to our daily lives than is cultural absolutism. (iii) We made moral progress when we moved from slavery to equality. (iv) There are some moral principles that are accepted by all cultures around the world. (v) Moral argumentation is impossible within the framework of cultural relativism. (vi) We construct arguments for and against cultures.
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17. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Guanyu Guo The Arcanum of Life – On Hegel’s Idea of Life
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This paper investigates Hegel’s idea of life, which is on the one hand significant to the research of the dynamic structure of Hegelian absolute idea and on the other hand provides a relevant philosophical foundation for our current exploration of life. In this paper, the research on the idea of life is mainly based on Hegel’s Science of Logic and is divided into two parts, namely an argumentative reconstruction of the moments of the life-idea and an interpretation of its role in the inner-logical process of the idea itself. Through the study of these two dimensions, this paper shows that the complex logical structure of the life-idea is, as claimed by Hegel, in its forming activity, in its negative unity, the only one unified process and plays four relevant roles in the inner-logical construction of the idea itself, namely in the core concept of Hegel.
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18. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Massimo Leone Orcid-ID Mirrors, Selfies, and Alephs: A Semiotics of Immobility Travelogues
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The article focuses on past epidemics and previous confinements, looking for the art of journeying through immobility. It rekindles the plague that ravaged the city of Turin in the 1630s, as well as Xavier de Maistre who, confined in the military citadel in 1790, wrote the Voyage autour de ma chambre, perhaps the first example of modern ‘anodeporics’, a neologism to designate immobility travelogues. The essay then explores other pandemics and subsequent attempts at imitating De Maistre. First, it concentrates on Wilkie Collins, the author of the 1852 short story “A Terribly Strange Bed”, who remained stranded with his father William, the painter, at the frontier of the Kingdom of Piedmont because of the cholera that broke out there in 1836. Second, it bears on Almeida Garrett, who resisted the siege of typhus-struck Oporto in 1832-3 and, ten years later, penned another classic of ‘anodeporics’, Viagens na minha terra, also inspired by De Maistre. After consideration, from the perspective of semiotics, of what is needed to “journeying throughout immobility”, the essay ends with a study of the most famous anodeporic tale in world literature, also containing ironic quotes by De Maistre: Jorge Luis Borges’ El Aleph, named after a fictional device for mystical travel confined in a basement of 1940s Buenos Aires. The conclusion of this semiotic exploration through pandemics, lockdowns, and immobility travelogues is simple: in case of forced immobility, the practice of exploring space through time can be replaced by the alternative practice of exploring time through space.
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19. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
I Gede Mugi Raharja Ethics and Responsibilities: Preserving Traditional Balinese Architectural Values in the Global Era
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Bali island has become a world tourist destination since the colonial period. Bali even almost made to be a "living museum" through Baliseering program by the Dutch Colonial Government in the 1930s, with the pretext of protecting Balinese culture. The proscenium stage was introduced for the Balinese architectural performance venue. At the Colonial Tourism Exhibition in Paris in 1931, the Dutch Colonial Government introduced a unique Balinese architecture. The Balinese ethnographic museum was also built by combining the architectural concepts of Pura and Puri in Bali. After Indonesia's independence in 1945, tourism activities are continued by the Balinese Regional Government. To protect the values of traditional architecture in the midst of the tourism development in the global era, the Balinese Regional Government made special regulations related to ethics and the preservation of traditional Balinese architecture. This article discusses the ethics and responsibilities of architects or interior designers in preserving local geniuses of traditional Balinese architecture in the global era. Primarily, the study focuses on the aesthetic qualities of local genius and creativity, combined with construction technology, to capture local characters and avoid cultural homogenization.
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20. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Vilija Grincevičiene, Orcid-ID Vaida Asakavičiūtė, Živilė Sederevičiūtė-Pačiauskienė Orcid-ID Expression of Citizenship and Nationality in the Education System of Lithuania
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The European Union policy is geared towards fostering the diversity of cultural expression in its member states. Globalisation, cosmopolitanism and increasing mobility of the population have been destroying the fundamental values of nation-based states. The preservation of the ethnicity of the nation is becoming an increasing challenge. In Lithuania, where ethnicity has deep roots, many prominent representatives of the Lithuanian national revival, cultural figures, philosophers and pedagogues have emphasised the importance of national culture and the development of national identity in the educational space in order to preserve the foundations of the state and its future sovereignty. This is, therefore, becoming an important educational challenge. In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Lithuania adopted the “Strategy for the Development of Ethnic Culture in Educational Institutions”, which was specified in the action program in 2012. However, the modelling of civic education, especially the practical implementation process, faces challenges in the area of education, one of which is the lack of proper attention from participants in education and media. The empirical research reveals that the interest of Lithuanian youth in the history of the national and ethnic culture remains low. This shows that when implementing reforms in the country’s education system, it is appropriate to impart fundamental provisions of citizenship and nationality to the young generation in a consistent and attractive manner. The aim of the article is to present the expression of citizenship and nationality in the educational space of Lithuania and to provide guidelines for improvement of civic education based on research.
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