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1. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Rostislav Tkachenko
Rostislav Tkachenko
An Analysis of Anselm’s Philosophical Theology and the Problem of Man’s Freedom in His De Concordia
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The purpose of this study is to discover, present and analyze the key ideas of Anselm of Canterbury concerning the notions of knowledge, will and mode of divine-human relations in the context of this “knowledge-will” framework which is important due to (a) somewhat insufficient attention to the medieval insights on the issue and (b) the peculiarity that Anselm’s intuitions have. More specifically, the object of the given paper is Anselmian understanding of relations between God’s foreknowledge and will, on the one side, and human free will, on the other side, as it is presented in the work entitled De Concordia. In this treatise Anselm of Canterbury partially uses and further elaborates some ideas of Augustine and Boethius, while integrating, updating and synthesizing them in a creative manner, and partially develops a number of thoughts of his own. As a result, there is a set of the well-formulated and comprehensive theses concerning (i) different types of (metaphysical) necessity, (ii) a proper definition of freedom of choice and will, (iii) the nature of will per se, and, finally, (iv) unique relation of “simultaneity” that exists between God’s knowledge, God’s will and the creature’s rational will. These ideas are presented and explicated in the article along with detailed exposition and analytical examination of the main line of argumentation found in the De Concordia.
2. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Михайло Якубович
Mykhaylo Yakubovych
Ontology of Ibn Arabi and Sadr ad-Din al-Qunawi in the Interpretation of Crimean Thinker Ahmad bin ‘Abdallah al-Qrimi
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The study is dedicated to the work of Crimean scholar Ahmad bin ‘Abdallah al-Qrimi, who was one of the most advanced interpreters of the Ibn Arabi’s and Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi’s Sufi philosophy. Ahmad al-Qrimi employed Ibn Sina’s views on division of essence and existence, as well as some concepts of Maturidi kalam. His manuscript work “Advise for the Perplexed and Key for the Exigent” shows main dimensions of Ahmad al-Qrimi’s thought as following: 1) The notion of Being in the works of Ibn Arabi and Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi is interpreted as the idea of necessary existence, as suggested by ibn Sina; 2) the conception of the identity of the absolute and necessary being is understood as the only right approach for the solution of polemics between adepts and critics of Sufism; 3) conception of “correlation” is considered as solution for the problem of relations between mind and reality.
3. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Юрій Федорченко
Yurij Fedorchenko
Kant's Table of Judgments and the Doctrine of the Judgment in the German Logic of XVIIIth Century
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The article focuses on the formation of Kant's table of judgments. The author proves the dependence of Kant's table of judgments on the doctrine of judgment in German 17th century logic. The author proves the influence of George Meier’s «Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre » on formation of the Kantian doctrine of judgment and the table of judgments. This effect consists in the fact that (1) the starting point for Kant's search of the concept of judgment was Meier's definition of judgment in § 292 of «Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre », (2) Kant's table of judgments in «Critique of Pure Reason» appeared as a follow-up of twenty-five critical reflection at §§ 292-352 of Meier's treatise. However, Kant's table of judgments depends also on transcendental logic. The original forms of judgment in Kant's table of judgments contain functional unities, which create the subject of a judgment. Kant's table of judgments depends on both German tradition of 17th century logic and the theory of subject as a part of Kant's transcendental logic.
4. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Александр Юдин
Alexander Yudin
The Origin of the Discussion of Author’s Intention in American Criticism and Philosophy
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The article deals with the origin and formation of debating positions in American criticism and philosophy. It analyzes “Intentional Fallacy” by W. Wimsatt and M. Beardsley. as well as E.D. Hirsch’s texts concerning the idea of objective interpretation which initiated this discussion. In fact, both positions are limited because of their normative and ahistorical character. Both sides try to regulate interpretation. Wimsatt and Beardsley lose the historical place of a text, whereas Hirsch reduces the historical place of an interpreter. Anti-intentionalism of Wimsatt and Beardsley relies on interpretative practice of American New Criticism with its principle of work’s autonomy. Despite the article’s empirical character, its important outcome is negation of subjectivity of meaning, and formulation of premises of its intersubjective understanding. Hirsch affirms the invariability of work’s meaning and with this purpose (1) identifies it with the author’s intention binding it with the notion of intentionality and author’s horizoncontext (based on Husserl and Dilthey), (2) introduces the distinction between meaning and significance (based on Frege and Saussure). Despite the contradictions of Hirsch’s positions both in understanding these ideas and in his own conclusions, his merit is the statement of the problem of meaning in general and extending the discussion into the territory of hermeneutics and philosophy of literature.
5. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Андрій Дахній
Andriy Dakhniy
Heidegger’s «Arbitrary» Reading of Kant: the Overcoming of Neo-Kantianism and Temporalization of Transcendental Schematism
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The paper examines the influence of Kant's theoretical philosophy on formation of phenomenological interpretation of temporal issues in Heidegger's thinking, both in terms of his positive perception of Kant's recent approaches (schematism of pure conceptions of understanding, transcendental faculty of imagination as a primary temporariness and as the essence of human being), as well as in terms of negative repulsion (proposition of ontological alternatives to Kant's Gnoseologism, criticism of his attempt to replace basically temporal transcendental faculty of imagination with atemporal understanding). The paper emphasizes specificity and even "arbitrariness" of Heidegger's interpretation of Kantian theoretical philosophizing. This interpretation fits into the strategy of destruction of Western metaphysics, but significantly differs the Neo-Kantianism interpretations in focusing not so much on limited cognitive capacity, but rather on the limitations of human existence as such. Finally, it is shown that Heidegger attempted to demonstrate the structuring of the sense of being via schematism of ecstatic-horizontal temporariness inspired by Kant's influence.
6. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Анна Лактіонова
Anna Laktionova
Cogito Ergo Sum and Philofsophy of Action
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Analytical philosophy opens new perspectives of studies in the history of philosophy. There are (1) generalized history of analytical interpretations of Cartesian principle cogito ergo sum and (2) analysis of Cartesianism through the prism of contemporary philosophy of action, with special attention to performativity of the mentioned principle. The importance of such research necessarily goes beyond "pure" history of philosophy: it also contributes to revision of traditional approaches to justification of knowledge (foundationalism, coherentism, reliabilism), which still remain problematic. Attention to performativism of cogito ergo sum thesis is the key to new convenient interpretation of knowledge justification problem, because it allows for justification as selfjustification in terms of accomplishment. Inevitable accomplishment, peculiar to evidfently performative knowledge (example of which is cogito ergo sum, a very good contender for the role of a sure foundation), suggests that fundamentalist strategy of knowledge justification, in the perspective of philosophy of action, amounts to a preferable interpretation compared to traditional epistemological approach.
7. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Віталій Терлецький
Vitali Terletsky
Aristotle’s Theory of Time in the Light of the Phenomenological Tradition
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The paper deals with reconstitution of tradition, whose representatives (M. Heidegger, W. Bröcker, E. Fink, K.-H. Volkmann-Schluck, K. Held, G. Figal) at any given time in their own way interpret the doctrine of time in Aristotle’s «Physics» in the phenomenological resp. hermeneutic perspective. It focuses on the relation of time and change, the problems of identity and difference of «now», temporal and timeless meaning of próteron – hýsteron, the relationship of time and soul, the sense of «being-in-time» thesis. In this tradition the need for «a systematic reconstruction» of the Stagirite’s arguments and examination of coherence of certain propositions is frequently emphasized, This is motivated, on the one hand, by the development of temporal thematic within phenomenology itself, and, on the other hand, by the dissociation from only historical or philological reading of this classical text.
8. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Юрґен Штольценберґ
Jürgen Stolzenberg
Martin Heidegger Reads Fichte
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A new world opened up before Heidegger when he lectured on Fichte, Hegel and Schelling for the first time in the summer term of 1929. This is what Heidegger wrote to Karl Jaspers in June, 1929. The paper shows how Heidegger interpreted Fichte. In lecturing on Fichte, Heidegger became aware of the original quality of Fichte’s philosophy in relation to his own theory in Being and Time. Heidegger tried to give Fichte’s view its due precisely with the aim of emphasizing and underlining the justness of his own claims. This can be seen in the way Heidegger interpreted the foundation of Fichte’s early Wissenschaftslehre. Following Heidegger, the third basic principle with its concept of limitation has to be the very fundamental principle. Secondly, Heidegger rejected technical aspects of deduction and systematic character of Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre. Interpreting the content of Fichte’s concept of «Tathandlung» and his theory of imagination Heidegger sees a perspective that he develops in Being and Time.
9. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Степан Іваник
Stepan Ivanyk
What is Polish Philosophy and What Can It Give to Ukrainian Philosophy?
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The article examines discussion wich took place in 1911 between Polish philosophers Henryk Struve and Kazimierz Twardowski about the state of Polish philosophy and plans for its future development. The results of the discussion were extrapolated to the current situation of Ukrainian philosophy and its challenges. The conclusion is that the path of Polish philosophy of the last century can serve to modern Ukrainian philosophy as reliable guide to the future. Polish philosophy’s recipe of success transferred to modern Ukrainian philosophy consists in, firstly, elimination of external domination of Russian influence due to its balancing by other foreign influences, and, secondly, purposeful development of analytical direction.
10. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Ельвіра Чухрай
Elvira Chukhray
The Ultimate Purpose of Life and the Meaning in Life: History of Philosophy and Limits of Rational Reconstruction
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The article analyses whether it is correct to extrapolate the concept of “meaning in life” developed by Thaddeus Metz to the doctrines of ancient philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas. Is Metz’ concept of “purposes” that make “human life” meaningful analogous to Aquinas’ concept of “ultimate purpose of man”? Significant points of Metz’ conception of “meaning in life” in our article are described and compared with Aquinas’ conception of “ultimate purpose of man.” As it turns out, these conceptions are only superficially similar. In fact, they are profoundly different: (1) Aquinas is talking about the “purpose of man”, which implies objective teleology incompatible with Metz’ “naturalism”, and is not talking about “meaning in life” (and even “purpose of life”); (2) “ultimate purpose of man”, for Aquinas, is intended to provide salvation and eternal life for man, not to make life “significant” in this world. Thus, Metz and Aquinas not only use different terminology, but also address different problems. They deal with different questions, not just give different answers to the same question (about the “meaning in life”). Metz’s extrapolation may be correct, when viewed as a kind of rational reconstruction. However, Metz does not make appropriate reservations and groundlessly unifies heterogeneous problems. The article shows that more historically oriented methodology avoids impropriety in the exercise of rational reconstruction of “meaning in life” in the field of ancient and medieval philosophies.

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11. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Казимеж Айдукевич
Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz
A Praise of Laborious Life
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12. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Іван Лисий
Ivan Lysyi
Problematicity of the National Cultural Identification of Ukrainian Philosophy (based on the articles from XXX-th issue of Sententiae)
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The paper contains the critical review of materials from the rubric «Could “national philosophy” be strictly defined research object?» (Sententiae, 2014, № 1).

13. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Abstracts [UKR]
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14. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Abstracts [RUS]
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